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НазваEnglish Food (Food and drinks in English)
АвторRoman
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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English Food

 

(Food and drinks in English)

 

British cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and

practices associated with the United Kingdom. Historically, British

cuisine means "unfussy dishes made with quality local ingredients,

matched with simple sauces to accentuate flavour, rather than disguise

it."[1] However, British cuisine has absorbed the cultural influence of

those that have settled in Britain, producing hybrid dishes, such as the

Anglo-Indian Chicken tikka masala, hailed as "Britain's true national

dish".[2]

 

Vilified as "unimaginative and heavy", British cuisine has traditionally

been limited in its international recognition to the full breakfast and

the Christmas dinner.[3] However, Celtic agriculture and animal breeding

produced a wide variety of foodstuffs for indigenous Celts and Britons.

Anglo-Saxon England developed meat and savory herb stewing techniques

before the practice became common in Europe. The Norman conquest

introduced exotic spices into Great Britain in the Middle Ages.[3] The

British Empire facilitated a knowledge of India's elaborate food

tradition of "strong, penetrating spices and herbs".[3] Food rationing

policies, put in place by the British government during wartime periods

of the 20th century,[4] are said to have been the stimulus for British

cuisine's poor international reputation.[3]

 

British dishes include fish and chips, the Sunday roast, and bangers and

mash. British cuisine has several national and regional varieties,

including English, Scottish and Welsh cuisine, which each have developed

their own regional or local dishes, many of which are geographically

indicated foods such as Cheshire cheese, the Yorkshire pudding, Arbroath

Smokie, and Welsh cakes.

 

Roastbeef with yorkshire puddings

 

History

 

Romano-British agriculture, highly fertile soils and advanced animal

breeding produced a wide variety of very high quality foodstuffs for

indigenous Romano-British. Anglo-Saxon England developed meat and

savoury herb stewing techniques and the Norman conquest reintroduced

exotic spices and continental influences back into Great Britain in the

Middle Ages[3] as maritime Britain became a major player in the

transcontinental spice trade for many centuries. Following the

Protestant Reformation in the 16th and 17th Centuries "plain and robust"

food remained the mainstay of the British diet, reflecting tastes which

are still shared with neighbouring north European countries and

traditional North American Cuisine.

 

In the 18th and 19th centuries, as the Colonial British Empire began to

be influenced by India's elaborate food tradition of "strong,

penetrating spices and herbs", the United Kingdom developed a worldwide

reputation[5] for the quality of British beef and pedigree bulls were

exported to form the bloodline of major modern beef herds across the New

World. [3] Food rationing policies, put in place by the British

government during wartime periods of the 20th century,[6] are often

claimed as the stimulus for the decline of British cuisine in the

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