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НазваHalloween (реферат)
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Тип документуРеферат
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Also called	All Hallows Eve

All Saints' Eve

Observed by	Numerous Western countries (see article)

Type	Secular with roots in Christianity and paganism

Date	October 31

Celebrations	Varies by region but includes trick-or-treating, ghost
tours, apple bobbing, costume parties, carving jack-o'-lanterns

Related to	Samhain, All Saints Day

Halloween (or, by semantic correctness: Hallowe’en) is a holiday
celebrated on October 31. It has roots in the Celtic festival of Samhain
and the Christian holy day of All Saints. It is largely a secular
celebration, but some Christians and pagans have expressed strong
feelings about its religious overtones. Irish immigrants carried
versions of the tradition to North America during Ireland's Great Famine
of 1846. The day is often associated with the colors orange and black,
and is strongly associated with symbols such as the jack-o'-lantern.
Halloween activities include trick-or-treating, ghost tours, bonfires,
costume parties, visiting haunted attractions, carving jack-o'-lanterns,
reading scary stories, and watching horror movies.


Halloween has origins in the ancient Celtic festival known as Samhain
(Irish pronunciation; from the Old Irish samain, possibly derived from
Gaulish samonios). The festival of Samhain is a celebration of the end
of the harvest season in Gaelic culture, and is sometimes regarded as
the "Celtic New Year".

Traditionally, the festival was a time used by the ancient Celtic pagans
to take stock of supplies and slaughter livestock for winter stores. The
ancient Celts believed that on October 31, now known as Halloween, the
boundary between the living and the deceased dissolved, and the dead
become dangerous for the living by causing problems such as sickness or
damaged crops. The festivals would frequently involve bonfires, into
which the bones of slaughtered livestock were thrown. Costumes and masks
were also worn at the festivals in an attempt to copy the evil spirits
or placate them.

Origin of name

The term Halloween is shortened from All Hallows Eve (both "even" and
"eve" are abbreviations of "evening," but "Halloween" gets its "n" from
"even") as it is the eve of "All Hallows' Day", which is now also known
as All Saints' Day. It was a day of religious festivities in various
northern European pagan traditions, until Popes Gregory III and Gregory
IV moved the old Christian feast of All Saints' Day from May 13 (which
had itself been the date of a pagan holiday, the Feast of the Lemures)
to November 1. In the 9th century, the Church measured the day as
starting at sunset, in accordance with the Florentine calendar. Although
All Saints' Day is now considered to occur one day after Halloween, the
two holidays were, at that time, celebrated on the same day.


On Hallows' eve, the ancient Celts would place a skeleton on their
window sill to represent the departed. Originating in Europe, these
lanterns were first carved from a turnip or rutabaga. Believing that the
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