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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваHalloween (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Origin of name


Trick-or-treating and guising 


Costume sales

Games and other activities 

Haunted attractions


Around the world

Religious perspectives



Halloween is a holiday celebrated on October 31. It has roots in the
Celtic festival of Samhain and the Christian holy day of All Saints. It
is largely a secular celebration, but some Christians and pagans have
expressed strong feelings about its religious overtones. Irish
immigrants carried versions of the tradition to North America during
Ireland's Great Famine of 1846. The day is often associated with the
colors orange and black, and is strongly associated with symbols such as
the jack-o'-lantern. Halloween activities include trick-or-treating,
ghost tours, bonfires, costume parties, visiting haunted attractions,
carving jack-o'-lanterns, reading scary stories, and watching horror


Halloween has origins in the ancient Celtic festival known as Samhain;
from the Old Irish samain, possibly derived from Gaulish samonios). The
festival of Samhain is a celebration of the end of the harvest season in
Gaelic culture, and is sometimes regarded as the "Celtic New Year".
Traditionally, the festival was a time used by the ancient Celtic pagans
to take stock of supplies and slaughter livestock for winter stores. The
ancient Celts believed that on October 31, now known as Halloween, the
boundary between the living and the deceased dissolved, and the dead
become dangerous for the living by causing problems such as sickness or
damaged crops. The festivals would frequently involve bonfires, into
which the bones of slaughtered livestock were thrown. Costumes and masks
were also worn at the festivals in an attempt to copy the evil spirits
or placate them.

Origin of name

The term Halloween is shortened from All Hallows Eve (both "even" and
"eve" are abbreviations of "evening," but "Halloween" gets its "n" from
"even") as it is the eve of "All Hallows' Day", which is now also known
as All Saints' Day. It was a day of religious festivities in various
northern European pagan traditions, until Popes Gregory III and Gregory
IV moved the old Christian feast of All Saints' Day from May 13 (which
had itself been the date of a pagan holiday, the Feast of the Lemures)
to November 1. In the 9th century, the Church measured the day as
starting at sunset, in accordance with the Florentine calendar. Although
All Saints' Day is now considered to occur one day after Halloween, the
two holidays were, at that time, celebrated on the same day.


On Hallows' eve, the ancient Celts would place a skeleton on their
window sill to represent the departed. Originating in Europe, these
lanterns were first carved from a turnip or rutabaga. Believing that the
head was the most powerful part of the body, containing the spirit and
the knowledge, the Celts used the "head" of the vegetable to frighten
off any superstitions. Welsh, Irish and British myth are full of legends
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