Kolomyia (or better, to suit the Ukrainian spelling, Kolomyya,
Ukrainian: Коломия, Polish: Ko?omyja, Russian: Коломыя, German: Kolomea,
Romanian: Colomeea) is a city located on the Prut River in the
Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (province), in western Ukraine. Serving as the
administrative center of the Kolomyisky Raion (district), the city is
also designated as a separate raion within the oblast. The city rests
approximately halfway between Lviv and Chernivtsi, in the center of the
historical region of Pokuttya, with which it shares much of its history.
The current estimated population was around 68,000 inhabitants as of
The city is a notable railroad hub, as well as an industrial center
(textiles, shoes, metallurgical plant, machine works, wood and paper
industry). It is a center of Hutsul culture.Contents [hide]
Under Kievan Rus' and the principality of Halych-Volhynia (1241-1340)
The settlement of Kolomyia was first mentioned in 1241, during the
Mongol invasion of Rus. Initially part of Kievan Rus', it later belonged
to one of its successor states, the principality of Halych-Volhynia.
Under Poland (1340-1498)
In 1340 it was annexed to Poland by King Casimir III, together with the
rest of the region of Red Ruthenia. In a short time the settlement
became one of the most notable centres of commerce in the area. Because
of that, the population rose rapidly.
?adys?aw Jagie??o erected a Dominican order monastery and a stone-built
church there. About the same time, the king was forced by the war with
the Teutonic Order to pawn the area of Pokucie to the hospodar of
Moldavia, Alexander. Although the city remained under Polish
sovereignty, the income of the customs offices in the area was given to
the Moldavians, after which time the debt was repaid.
mited self-governance. This move made the development of the area faster
and Ko?omyja, as it was called then, attracted many settlers from many
parts of Europe. Apart from the local Ruthenians and Poles, many
Armenians, Jews, and Hungarians settled there. In 1443, a year before
his death, King Wladislaus II of Poland granted the city yet another
privilege which allowed the burghers to trade salt, one of the most
precious minerals of the Middle Ages.
Since the castle gradually fell into disarray, in 1448 King Casimir IV
of Poland gave the castle on the hill above the town to Maria, widow of
Eliah, voivod of Moldavia as a dowry. In exchange, she refurbished the
castle and reinforced it. In 1456 the town was granted yet another
privilege. This time the king allowed the town authorities to stop all
merchants passing by the town, and force them to sell their goods at the
local market. This gave the town an additional boost, especially as the
region was one of three salt-producing areas in Poland (the other two
being Wieliczka and Bochnia), both not far from Krakуw.
The area was relatively peaceful for the next century. However, the
vacuum after the decline of the Golden Horde started to be filled by yet
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