Реферат на тему:
Main elements of a literary text
1. The short story genre. The theme.
2. The message.
3. Tonal system.
4. The plot and its structure.
5. System of images. The means of characterization.
1. A short story is traditionally understood as a short story narrative
in prose. Its literary classical definition presents a short story as a
relatively brief prose narrative, usually characterized by uniformity of
tone and dramatic intensity, and having as plot a single action. A
popular form of a story is one that tells events with a definite
beginning, middle and end. But others may have very little plot and may
never have moved to a completed action.
A short story usually contains one event focusing on a single aspect of
life. The number of characters is limited but they are rather revealed
and developed. The story may belong to a particular type: social,
psychological, historical, adventure, detective, science-fiction,
documentary or be the mixture of a number of the types.
Note. Why story? We deal with the short prose form of fiction, the short
story, because of two reasons:
a) in the short story the linguistic and literary devices are
expressively more loaded than in the long form of writing, the novel;
b) because of its length the short story abounds in implicit
A literary work is an artistic whole which is created by the interaction
of all its elements: the characters, setting, plot, plot structure,
language, literary techniques, etc.
The basic problem represented in the story is the theme. The theme is
the main area of interest treated in the story. It is the represented
aspect of life which the story illustrates.
As literary works commonly have human characters for their subject of
depiction the theme may be understood as an interaction of human
characters under certain circumstances (the theme of love or love for
one’s Motherland; the theme of family relations, war and peace; a clash
of cultures; discrimination of any kind, etc.)
Within a single narrative the basic theme may alternate with rival
themes and their relationship may be complex. All the themes are linked
together to represent a unity, the essential characteristic of a
Thus the theme of the story implies the problem which the writer
raises. His view and attitude to this problem is revealed in the way he
develops the theme of the story.
2. The most important idea that the author expresses in the process of
developing the theme is the message of the story. The theme is therefore
organically connected with the author’s message.
The message is generally expressed implicitly, i.e. indirectly, and has
a complex analytical character, being created by the interaction of
numerous implications which the different elements of the literary work
Implication is the suggestion that is not expressed directly but
understood. Implication may be conveyed by different techniques, such as
a) parallelism (parallel actions of the dream and reality),
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