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НазваLinguistics and Other Fields (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Реферат на тему:

Linguistics and Other Fields

Crystal D. Linguistics. Second ed. 

Penguin Book, 1990. – pp. 256-267.

The main merit of research over the past few years is that people now
have a much clearer idea as to what the important questions of
linguistic theory are: over the next few years, we may go some way
towards solving some of them. It should be clear from this attitude,
then, that those who clamour for applications of linguistics - myself
included - are not likely to be satisfied for a while. Too much of the
subject is in an unformulated state to be able to be applied in any
useful way to the study of some other field - though, as we shall see,
some restricted areas have come to be fairly well investigated and
introduced. The absence of any complete grammar of English (which has
been the most analysed of all languages) is one of the most obvious
limitations of the applicability of linguistics at the present time. The
presence of so much fundamental theoretical disagreement, which has to
be gone into before one can adopt a particular 'applied' line, is
another. However, it would be wrong to criticize linguistics for failing
to come up to expectations, or for being too negative (in its criticisms
of earlier work), or for being too complicated and abstract - such
criticisms are not uncommon. The negative flavour of early linguistics
was, as we have seen, an essential preliminary to the development of a
more constructive and open-minded state of mind on the part of language
scholars. Understanding the weaknesses of early accounts of language
helped them to reach an understanding of the fact that it was complex,
and to appreciate the nature and extent of its complexity. It was this
awareness which promoted the careful analysis of data and the
development of the necessary (albeit abstract) distinctions of
phonetics, morphology, and the other levels. It is in fact this very
complexity which is the reason why linguistics has not developed further
than it has. It would be perfectly possible for any competent linguist
to sit down and write a linguistic grammar of English, in the light of
available knowledge, for the purpose of language teaching; but it is
unlikely that it would be a wholly satisfying job. There is still too
much dispute about the theoretical principles on which such a grammar
should be based, too much dispute over terminology, and too much
uncertainty over the facts of the language, to produce a sound,
comprehensible and comprehensive grammar. And bearing in mind that
linguistics has been with us such a short time, this inadequacy is
perhaps not surprising. A great deal has nonetheless been achieved.

     Awareness of this inadequacy has not of course stopped people from
trying to write such grammars; nor should it. The more attempts there
are to formulate adequate grammars for particular applications in
teaching and elsewhere, the more quickly the difficulties will be
appreciated, and the sooner they will be overcome. What is important is
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