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НазваApproaches in the Field of Linguistics (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Реферат на тему:


Approaches in the Field of Linguistics


Early Approaches: P?nini and Grimm


Sobel S.P. The Cognitive Sciences:


An Interdisciplinary Approach. – London; Toronto:


Mayfield Publishing Company, 2001. - pp. 155-158.


The notion of linguistic competence introduced previously rests on the

assumption of unconscious knowledge and unconscious cognitive activity.

This is not a new assumption; it underlies, for example, the work of the

grammarian P?nini, who carried out his research in India sometime

between the fifth and seventh centuries B.C.E. P?nini sought to capture

the underlying patterns of the Sanskrit he spoke and, in this fashion,

to describe the whole of the language. The few examples presented in the

previous section indicate something of the nature of the rules that a

language rests on. How vast a task it would be to try to describe it

all: rules affecting the sounds and their variants, rules for forming

words, rules for generating all the possible sentences. P?nini

approached this monumental task by formulating detailed, highly

condensed rules. Their nature was not prescriptive but rather

descriptive. As such, they reflect the unconscious knowledge of speakers

of the language rather than rules that might have been explicitly

taught. They capture so much detail of the language so tersely that

expanding and understanding them has required the work of many scholars

and much time. Since P?nini, no one has accomplished so impressive a

description of any language.


The work of P?nini, and of other Indian linguists of his time and

earlier, was not known in the West until the 19th century. Linguistics

scholars of the 1800s had observed many similarities among the languages

of Europe and sought to trace their history, engaging in comparative

studies of these related languages and projecting backward to arrive at

a "reconstruction" of the ancestral language, or group of dialects, from

which they derived. One of the most famous of these scholars was Jacob

Grimm (1785-1863), of fairy-tale fame. Grimm's contribution to the

understanding of certain important consonant shifts among the

Indo-European languages (many of the languages most familiar to us,

including English) is a staple of historical-comparative study, known to

all linguistics students and scholars as Grimm's law. This law, which

aids in the process of linguistic reconstruction, explains for example

the historical relation between Latin p (as in pater) and English f (as

in father), both of which derive from the same source, a language spoken

some thousands of years ago and referred to today as Indo-European.


Linguistics scholars engaged in reconstructing early languages of

which there is no written record made educated guesses as to what the

earlier forms were based on evidence from all aspects of these

languages—from the vocabulary they contained to the kinds of change

exhibited over time in their sound systems and in their grammatical

structures. This type of comparative-historical research contributed a

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