Реферат на тему:
1. Types of narrators.
2. Narration: its types and forms of presentation.
The narrative method involves such aspects as
a) who narrates the story and
b) the way the narrator stands in relation to the events and to the
other characters of the story.
The author can vary the narrative method depending on what he wants his
readers to concentrate on. He can tell the story from the point of view
of a character in the story, or from without – as an onlooker.
The author may choose four types of narrators:
1) the main character;
2) a miner character;
3) the omniscient author;
4) the observer-author.
1. When the main character tells his story, the events of the story are
presented to the reader through his perception. The author in this case
places himself in the position of the main character and tells of things
that only the main character saw and felt.
2. When a minor character, who participates in the actions, narrates the
story, the events are described through the perception of his character.
The author places himself in the position of a minor character and gives
this character’s version of the events and personages.
3. The author may narrate his story anonymously, analyzing and
interpreting the character’s motives and feelings. The reader sees what
is going on in the minds of all the characters. This type of narration
is told by the omniscient (or analytic) author. The omniscient author
reproduces the character’s thoughts and comments on their actions.
4. The story may be told in such a way that we are given the impression
of witnessing the events as they happen – we see the actions and hear
the conversations, but we never enter directly into the minds of any of
the characters. In this case the reader is guided by the
observer-author. The observer-author merely records the speech and
actions of the characters without analyzing them.
2. In every story events are presented from somebody’s point of view.
Hence, there are two types of narration – 1st person and 3rd person
narration. When told by a character in the story, the story is the
first-person narrative. When told by the author, it is the third-person
If the story is a 1st-person narrative, it is told from the narrator’s
point of view and the reader gets a biased understanding of the events
and the other characters, because he sees them through the perception of
the character who narrates. At the same time any story always reveals
the author’s point of view even if it is implied. The character’s and
the author’s viewpoints may or may not coincide.
When the author shifts the responsibility of telling the story to the
1st-person narrator, he actually provides his reader with two versions
of one and the same story:
1) the explicitly expressed subjective version (the narrator’s version)
2) the implied objective version, which the skilled reader is expected
There are several advantages of these two methods.
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