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: 2016-12-30
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Narrative method ()
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Narrative method




1. Types of narrators.


2. Narration: its types and forms of presentation.


The narrative method involves such aspects as


a) who narrates the story and


b) the way the narrator stands in relation to the events and to the

other characters of the story.


The author can vary the narrative method depending on what he wants his

readers to concentrate on. He can tell the story from the point of view

of a character in the story, or from without as an onlooker.


The author may choose four types of narrators:


1) the main character;


2) a miner character;


3) the omniscient author;


4) the observer-author.


1. When the main character tells his story, the events of the story are

presented to the reader through his perception. The author in this case

places himself in the position of the main character and tells of things

that only the main character saw and felt.


2. When a minor character, who participates in the actions, narrates the

story, the events are described through the perception of his character.

The author places himself in the position of a minor character and gives

this characters version of the events and personages.


3. The author may narrate his story anonymously, analyzing and

interpreting the characters motives and feelings. The reader sees what

is going on in the minds of all the characters. This type of narration

is told by the omniscient (or analytic) author. The omniscient author

reproduces the characters thoughts and comments on their actions.


4. The story may be told in such a way that we are given the impression

of witnessing the events as they happen we see the actions and hear

the conversations, but we never enter directly into the minds of any of

the characters. In this case the reader is guided by the

observer-author. The observer-author merely records the speech and

actions of the characters without analyzing them.


2. In every story events are presented from somebodys point of view.

Hence, there are two types of narration 1st person and 3rd person

narration. When told by a character in the story, the story is the

first-person narrative. When told by the author, it is the third-person



If the story is a 1st-person narrative, it is told from the narrators

point of view and the reader gets a biased understanding of the events

and the other characters, because he sees them through the perception of

the character who narrates. At the same time any story always reveals

the authors point of view even if it is implied. The characters and

the authors viewpoints may or may not coincide.


When the author shifts the responsibility of telling the story to the

1st-person narrator, he actually provides his reader with two versions

of one and the same story:


1) the explicitly expressed subjective version (the narrators version)



2) the implied objective version, which the skilled reader is expected

to derive.


There are several advantages of these two methods.

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