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НазваFamoust Chemists of the world (реферат)
АвторРоман
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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«Famoust Chemists of the world»

 

Arrhenius Svante August

 

 Svante Arrhenius was born in Sweden. He learned to read at the age of

three and became interested in mathematics and physics at an early age.

He proposed in his doctoral thesis that electrolytes split into ions in

water. For his efforts he was awarded the barest of passes. Fortunately,

William Ostwald and Jacobus vanґt Hoff promoted his work on electrolytic

theory. He was awarded the 1903 Nobel prize for Chemistry for roughly

the same thesis that had been nearly rejected nineteen years previously.

He had universal interests in science and proposed the greenhouse

effect.

 

Avogadro Amedeo

 

Amedeo Avogadro was a professor of physics in the University of Turin,

but is best known for his contributions to chemistry. He followed the

work of Gay Lussac closely and realised early on the difference between

atoms and molecules. Avogadro suggested that equal volumes of gases

under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contained equal

numbers of particles. The number of particles in a mole, 6,022x1023  ,

is called Avogadroґs Number in his honour.

 

Bohr Niels Henrik David

 

Niels Bohr was born in Copenhagen in denmark in 1885. His father was a

professor of physiology at the University of Copengagen. Niels attended

the same university and was a distinguished soccer player as well as a

brilliant student.

 

Bohr studied at J. J. Thomsonґs Cavendish Laboratory and at Rutherfordґs

laboratory. At the young age of 28, while working with Rutherford, he

invented the first effective model and theory of the structure of the

atom. His work ranks as one of the truly great examples of an

imaginative mind at work. He was awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize for

physics for his study of the structure of atoms.

 

During Worls War 2, Bohr and his family escaped from occupied Denmark to

the United States. He and his son, Aage, acted as advisers at the Los

Alomos Atomic Laboratories, where the atom bomb was developed.

Thereafter, Bohr concerned himself with developing peaceful uses of

nuclear energy. Aage Bohr, Neilґs son was awarded the Nobel Prize for

physics in 1975.

 

Boyle Robert

 

Robert Boyle was born in Lismore, Ireland. He was regarded as one of the

foremost  experimental scientists of his time. It is thought that he was

the first to collect gases by displacing water in an inverted flask. He

discovered the relationship between the pressure and the volume of a gas

in 1660. The relationship, pxV = constant, is known as Boyleґs law and

was one of the first attempts to express a scientific principle in a

mathematical form. Boyle separated chemistry from the realm of alchemy

and estabilished it as a science. On the basis of experiment he defined

an element as something that cannot be broken up into smaller

substances. Robert Boyle devoted his life to experimental science,

taking careful notes of each experiment, enabling other scientists to

learn from his work. He is regarded as the father of experimental

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