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НазваFamous Ukrainian Chemist (Vladimir Vernadsky, Vasiliy Karazin, Nikolay Beketov ) (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Famous Ukrainian Chemist


(Vladimir Vernadsky, Vasiliy Karazin, Nikolay Beketov ) Nikolay Beketov


Nikolay Nikolayevich Beketov (Бекетов, Николай Николаевич in Russian)

(January 13 [O.S. January 1] 1827—December 13 [O.S. November 30] 1911)

was a Ukrainian physical chemist, academician of the Petersburg Academy

of Sciences (1886).


In 1849, Beketov graduated from Kazan University and worked with Nikolay

Zinin. In 1855, he became a junior scientific assistant in the

Department of Chemistry at Kharkov University. In 1859-1887, Beketov was

a professor at the same university. In 1865, he defended his Ph.D.

thesis on "Research on the displacement phenomenon in metals"

("Исследования над явлениями вытеснения одних металлов другими"). In

1886, Beketov moved to Saint Petersburg, where he worked at the academic

chemical laboratory and taught at the University for Women. In 1890,

Beketov delivered lectures on the "Basics of Thermochemistry" at Moscow

State University.


Beketov discovered displacement of metals from solutions of their salts

by hydrogen under pressure. He also established that magnesium and zinc

displaced other metals from their salts under high temperatures. In

1859-1865, Beketov proved that aluminum restored metals from their

oxides under high temperatures. Later on, Beketov's experiments served

as a starting point for aluminothermy.


Василь Назарович Каразін, Vasyl Nazarovych Karazin, Russian: Василий

Назарович Каразин; January 30, 1773 – November 4, 1842) was a Ukrainian

Enlightenment intellectual, inventor, and scientific publisher in

Imperial Russia. He is the founder of Kharkiv University, which now

bears his name. He is also known for opposing to what he saw as colonial

exploitation of Ukraine by the Russian Empire, even though he himself

was ethnically Serbian.




He was born in Kruchyk village (Sloboda Ukraine Governorate

(Slobodsko-Ukrainskaya Guberniya), now Bohodukhivskyi Raion of Kharkiv

Oblast), Russian Empire (today Ukraine), in the family of Nazary

Alexandrovych Karazin, a Russian Imperial Army officer (noted for his

involvement in Parvu Cantacuzino's 1769 rebellion in Wallachia). Vasyl

Karazin considered himself to be ethnic Serb, though his family

originally known as Karadji was of Greek origin.


Vasyl Karazin was educated in nobility schools in Kharkiv and

Kremenchuk. At the age of eighteen, he left for Saint Petersburg, and

underwent military training in the prestigious Semyonovsky Regiment. He

also studied at the School of Mines, one of the top educational

institutions in Russian Empire at that time. Karazin was, nevertheless,

opposed to this environment, and often reacted against the manners and

customs condoned by the nobility of the times. Unsatisfied with his

military service, he moved back to his village and married a

fourteen-year-old serf.


In 1798, Karazin attempted to leave Russia given his opposition to the

policies of Russian Emperor Paul I, but was denied a passport. After he

attempted to cross the border illegally, he was swiftly arrested.

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