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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваMedicinal plants (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Medicinal plants


The plant kingdom is rich and varied. There are some 500,000 different

species of plants. Plants have different "natural homes" (habitats).

Cultivated plants from the garden differ greatly from the plants growing

in the field or in the meadow. Some plants are familiar to you. You

feast your eyes on modest bell-flowers, timid violets, bright poppies,

luxuriant roses, fragrant lilac, long clusters of showy coloured flowers

of hollyhock and evergreen leaves of ivy.


Don't gather meadow and field flowers into bouquets. Some of them are

rare species. Many plants produce poison that can kill or sicken people

that come in contact with the plant. Touching poison ivy (a shrubby or

climbing plant that has small, greenish berries and leaflets in groups

of three) causes a severe, itching skin rash; eating certain holly

berries (a shrub or a tree having evergreen leaves with pricky edges and

bright-red berries) causes vomiting; chewing a stem of hemlock (a

poisonous plant with featherlike leaves and flat clusters of small

whitish flowers) can kill an adult.


The best rule for dealing with plants is: never eat or chew any wild



But some of the chemical plants are used to produce medicines that ease

human suffering and cure serious illnesses. Medical plants and some

poisonous ones serve as a raw material for medicines.


A plant with a slender cluster of fragrant bell-shaped white flowers is

called lily of the valley. It is a raw material for extracts to cure

heart diseases. A bitter medical drug made from the dried juice of aloe

(a tropical plant with thick, spiny-toothed leaves) is used to stimulate

the digestive tract. The juice extracted from fresh leaves is used for

applications on fester wounds and abscesses.


A North American shrub with yellow flowers that bloom in late autumn or

winter is called witch hazel. A spicy-smeliing liquid made from the bark

and leaves of this plant and rubbed on the skin relieves an open injury

or wound pain. Early Native Americans were good at using various herbs

and plants for medical purposes. The Hurons had a cure from scurvy (a

disease caused by lack of fresh fruit and vegetables). They made a tonic

from the bark and needles of an ever green tree that carried massive

dozes of vitamin C. The Incas used a colourless substance from certain

cinchona (a South American tree) barks to cure malaria. Bitter drugs or

chemicals derived from quinine are used to treat malaria nowadays.


Over 200 years ago, doctors prepared medicines from the bark of willow

trees. The bark contains a chemical that can ease or reduce fevers. The

willow bark contains salicylate, an active ingredient of aspirin.


Plants grow in almost every part of the world. We see such plants as

flowers, grass and trees nearly every day. Plants also grow on

mountaintops, in the oceans, and in many desert and polar regions.


Without plants, there could be no life on the earth. People could not

live without air or food, and thus could not live without plants. The

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