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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
Назва Рекордисти з швидкості і повільності пересування
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РозділБіологія, зоологія, ботаніка, аграрна наука
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуКурсова
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Рекордисти з швидкості і повільності пересування

 

 

 

Пересування, тобто здатність переміщатись з одного місця на інше, - одна

з найважливіших ознак переважної більшості тварин і відіграє величезну

роль в їх житті.

 

Завдяки активному переміщенню з місця на місце відбувається швидка зміна

умов життя, що веде до удосконалення всієї організації тварин,

насамперед їхньої нервової системи та органів чуттів.

 

Пересування сприяє активному відшукуванню їжі та її захопленню; отже,

живлення стає інтенсивнішим, що приводить до посилення обміну речовин.

Тваринам, здатним до швидкого пересування, легше захищатися від

несприятливих умов існування, від різних ворогів.

 

Крім того, завдяки переміщенню проходить розселення виду, захоплення

нових територій з дещо відмінними умовами життя, а це сприяє вияву

мінливості-передумові виникнення нових підвидів і видів.

 

"Механізм" пересування тварин посилено вивчається біонікою з метою

створення автоматів, які найефективніше переміщалися б у різноманітних

складних умовах: на морському дні, в товщах води та грунту тощо.

 

Залежно від умов середовища та способу життя у процесі еволюції. в

тварин виробився певний спосіб пересування (локомоції): плавання,

повзання, лазіння, ходіння, біг, стрибання, планерування, літання.

 

Особливо різноманітно пересуваються наземні чотириногі тварини.

Переважна більшість їх може не тільки ходити, а й бігати, стрибати,

плавати, деякі планерують.

 

У них спостерігаються різні види ходи (алюру): дуже повільний, швидкий

або повільний рисеподібний крок, швидка рись, стрибок, інохідь, галоп.

 

Найповільніший вид ходи - це крок, при якому тварини по черзі дуже

повільно спираються на три або чотири ноги, виносячи одну з них уперед.

Так рухаються, наприклад, черепахи. Невипадково повільність їх

пересування увійшла у приказку. Приблизно 400 м проходять вони за

годину.

 

 

 

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ЗАМОВИТИ ОРИГІНАЛЬНУ РОБОТУ