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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваSt-Peterburg (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Department of public health RF.








































































Abstract on English by


Kuranov Alina Olegovna –


a student of Essentuki medical


college group №261




















































St-Peterburg is stillless then 300 years old: the age of the city on the

Neva delta is calculated from 27 May (16 May old-style) 1703 - the day

when the foundation of a new Russian fortress were laid on little Hare

Island, intended to protect the territory around the Neva that had been

won from the Swedesin the Northern War. The citadel was named (in Dutch

style) Sankt Pieterburgh (Saint Peter's City); thus began the history of

the capital of the Russian Empire, founded by Peter I.


However, St. Petersburg has its prehistory, just as other European

capitals do. Paris was originally a settlemt of the Gallic tribe the

Parisii called Lutetia, which the Romans made into a military base

called Parisiorum or Parisia. London and Vienna grew up on the sites of

Caltic setelements and Roman camps. A Moorish fortress formed the basis

for Madrid.





St. Petersburg has played an exceptional role in the life of Russia. It

is the second largest city in our country. St. Petersburg is the most

northern capital in the world. It is on the latitude as Greenland,

Alaska an Chukotka. This explains the white nights which are most

clearly visible between 11 June and 2 July. The city is rather young. It

was founded less than 300 years ago. The founder of St. Petersburg is

Peter the Great, who laid the first stone of the Peter and Paul Fortress

in 1703 on Hare island thus starting a new city. In 1712 it became the

capital of Russia the centre of its political and cultural life.


St. Petersburg is one the greatest and most beautiful cities in the

world. Its historical and cultural importance is as big as that of

Paris, London or Rome. «Northern Palmira", "Northern Venice" attracts

thousands of tourists from all over the world.





The first fortress appeared on the banks of the Neva, where St.

Petersburg was subsequently established, 700 years ago;


Since the city is situated on the banks of a 41 island, it has hundreds

of kilometers of quays and more than 300 bridges. Many quays were built

not only as banks fortifications, but also as the architectural element

of the space and expanse. The beautiful descents to the water line,

ornamental elements made of stone and metal, sculptures, fine railings

and lampposts -all this makes quays and bridges of Saint Petersburg one

of the most popular sites, draw-ing the great attention of the city's






It was a Swedish fortress called Landskrona ("Land's Crown"), built

where the River Okhta flows into the Neva. A Russian village soon grew

up around the fortress. This fortified setelement at the mouth of the

Okhta has changed its name and even the state to  which it has belonged,

but has continued to exist virtually without a break.

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