Department of public health RF.
Abstract on English by
Kuranov Alina Olegovna –
a student of Essentuki medical
college group №261
St-Peterburg is stillless then 300 years old: the age of the city on the
Neva delta is calculated from 27 May (16 May old-style) 1703 - the day
when the foundation of a new Russian fortress were laid on little Hare
Island, intended to protect the territory around the Neva that had been
won from the Swedesin the Northern War. The citadel was named (in Dutch
style) Sankt Pieterburgh (Saint Peter's City); thus began the history of
the capital of the Russian Empire, founded by Peter I.
However, St. Petersburg has its prehistory, just as other European
capitals do. Paris was originally a settlemt of the Gallic tribe the
Parisii called Lutetia, which the Romans made into a military base
called Parisiorum or Parisia. London and Vienna grew up on the sites of
Caltic setelements and Roman camps. A Moorish fortress formed the basis
St. Petersburg has played an exceptional role in the life of Russia. It
is the second largest city in our country. St. Petersburg is the most
northern capital in the world. It is on the latitude as Greenland,
Alaska an Chukotka. This explains the white nights which are most
clearly visible between 11 June and 2 July. The city is rather young. It
was founded less than 300 years ago. The founder of St. Petersburg is
Peter the Great, who laid the first stone of the Peter and Paul Fortress
in 1703 on Hare island thus starting a new city. In 1712 it became the
capital of Russia the centre of its political and cultural life.
St. Petersburg is one the greatest and most beautiful cities in the
world. Its historical and cultural importance is as big as that of
Paris, London or Rome. «Northern Palmira", "Northern Venice" attracts
thousands of tourists from all over the world.
The first fortress appeared on the banks of the Neva, where St.
Petersburg was subsequently established, 700 years ago;
Since the city is situated on the banks of a 41 island, it has hundreds
of kilometers of quays and more than 300 bridges. Many quays were built
not only as banks fortifications, but also as the architectural element
of the space and expanse. The beautiful descents to the water line,
ornamental elements made of stone and metal, sculptures, fine railings
and lampposts -all this makes quays and bridges of Saint Petersburg one
of the most popular sites, draw-ing the great attention of the city's
It was a Swedish fortress called Landskrona ("Land's Crown"), built
where the River Okhta flows into the Neva. A Russian village soon grew
up around the fortress. This fortified setelement at the mouth of the
Okhta has changed its name and even the state to which it has belonged,
but has continued to exist virtually without a break.
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