найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

Всього в базі: 75883
останнє поновлення: 2016-12-30
за 7 днів додано 0

Реферати на українській
Реферати на російській
Українські підручники

$ Робота на замовлення
Реклама на сайті
Зворотній зв'язок



реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe Tower of London (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
Замовити оригінальну роботу

Выполнил: студент 5-го курса Института филологии


германо –романского отделения


группы 505


Мирзоев Т. А.


Introduction – 1


The Bell Tower - 2


The bloody Tower - 2


The Salt Tower – 3


The Beauchamp Tower – 3


The Wakefield Tower – 4


The Martin Tower – 4


The White Tower – 5


Chaple of St. John The Evangelist – 5


The Arms and Armors (part one) – 5


The Arms and Armors (part two) – 6


9 The Crown Jewels – 7


10 Ceremonies – 8


The Ceremony of Keys – 8


The Ceremony of the Lilies and Roses - 9


Ghost stories - 10


The Ghost of Anne Boleyn - 10


Traitors’ Gate - 11



The Tower of London is a visual symbol of the Norman Conquest of

England. It was built by William the Conqueror with stone that was

brought over from Caen. The English do not relish the memory and like to

think that the Tower went back to Romans and was founded by Julius

Ceaser. This is not true, but some parts of the complex rest on Roman

foundations. William I, though, brought over a Norman expert as his

artificer, Gundulf, who designed the Tower. The Tower of London is

considered now by the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments as "The

most valuable monument of Medieval military architecture surviving in



The Tower was not only a fortress but eventually became a royal palace,

state prison, the Mint, a record office, observatory, and zoo. As a

state prison it was used for criminals considered most dangerous to the

state, and the Mint was the treasury for the Crown Jewels. It became a

zoo, the original Zoo, in 1834 when pets that the king had accumulated

over the years were among a great diversity. The zoo consisted of lions,

leopards, bears wolves, lynxes, etc.


The general appearance of this complex was much as it is today. Inside

the complex, though, there have been many changes. In front of the White

Tower, on the south side, there was a royal palace with private lodgings

and great hall. Medieval kings often took refuge in the lodgings. Many

historic events took place here too, such as the murder of the princes,

Edward IV's sons. It was custom for kings and queens to spend the night,

or a few days, before their coronation in these royal apartments. These

royal lodgings were eventually swept away, leaving the Tower all alone.


After William the Conqueror the king that left a lasting impression on

the Tower was Henry III. By 1236 he had rebuilt the Great Hall and built

the Wakefield Tower next to the royal lodgings. He also built the

archway to the Bloody Tower and the main angle towers along the wall.


A direct waterway entrance from the Thames onto the Tower was difficult

and for a time unachievable. It wasn't until the oratory was built to

the martyr St. Thomas that the foundations were ensured for such an

entrance. The Water Gate, or entrance from the Thames into the Tower,

later became known as Traiter's Gate. Henry III's son, Edward I,

finished off the Tower.


Several episodes reveal the general history of these times. In 1244

-----> Page:

0 [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]