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НазваThe history of Old English and its development. (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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The history of Old English and its development.

In 409 AD the last Roman legion left British shores, and in fifty years
the Islands became a victim of invaders. Germanic tribes from Southern
Scandinavia and Northern Germany, pushed from their densely populated
homelands, looked for a new land to settle. At that time the British
Isles were inhabited by the Celts and remaining Roman colonists, who
failed to organize any resistance against Germanic intruders, and so had
to let them settle here. This is how the Old English language was born. 

Celtic tribes crossed the Channel and starting to settle in Britain
already in the 7th century BC. The very word "Britain" seems to be the
name given by the pre-Celtic inhabitants of the island, accepted by
first Indo-Europeans. The Celts quickly spread over the island, and only
in the north still existed non-Indo-European peoples which are sometimes
called "Picts" (the name given by Romans). Picts lived in Scotland and
on Shetland Islands and represented the most ancient population of the
Isles, the origin of which is unknown. Picts do not seem to leave any
features of their language to Indo-European population of Britain - the
famous Irish and Welsh initial mutations of consonants can be the only
sign of the substratum left by unknown nations of Britain. At the time
the Celts reached Britain they spoke the common language, close to
Gaulish in France. But later, when Celtic tribes occupied Ireland,
Northern England, Wales, their tongues were divided according to tribal
divisions. These languages will later become Welsh, Irish Gaelic,
Cornish, but from that time no signs remained, because the Celts did not
invent writing yet. Not much is left from Celtic languages in English.
Though many place names and names for rivers are surely Celtic (like Usk
- from Celtic *usce "water", or Avon - from *awin "river"), the
morphology and phonetics are untouched by the Celtic influence. Some
linguists state that the word down comes from Celtic *dъn "down"; other
examples of Celtic influence in place names are tne following: 

cothair (a fortress) - Carnarvon 

uisge (water) - Exe, Usk, Esk 

dun, dum (a hill) - Dumbarton, Dumfries, Dunedin 

llan (church) - Llandaff, Llandovery, Llandudno 

coil (forest) - Kilbrook, Killiemore 

kil (church) - Kilbride, Kilmacolm 

ceann (cape) - Kebadre, Kingussie 

inis (island) - Innisfail 

inver (mountain) - Inverness, Inverurie 

bail (house) - Ballantrae, Ballyshannon, 

and, certainly, the word whiskey which means the same as Irish uisge
"water". But this borrowing took place much later. 

In the 1st century AD first Roman colonists begin to penetrate in
Britain; Roman legions built roads, camps, founded towns and castles.
But still they did not manage to assimilate the Celts, maybe because
they lived apart from each other and did not mix. Tens of Latin words in
Britain together with many towns, places and hills named by Romans make
up the Roman heritage in the Old English. Such cities as Dorchester,
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