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НазваThe history of railways (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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The history of railways


The railway is а good example of а system evolved in variousplaces to

fulfil а need and then developed empirically. In essence it consists оf

parallel tracks or bars of metal or wood, supported transversely by

other bars — stone, wood, steel and concrete have been used — so that

thе load of the vehicle is spread evenly through the substructure. Such

tracks were used in the Middle Ages for mining tramways in Europe;

railways came to England in the 16th century and went back to Europe in

the 19th century as an English invention.



English railways


The first Act of Parliament for а railway, giving right of way over

other people's property, was passed


in 1758, and the first for а public railway, to carry the traffic of all

comers, dates from 1801. The Stockton and Dailington Railway, opened on

27 September 1825, was the first public steam railway in the world,

although it had only one locomotive and relied on horse traction for the

most part, with stationary steam engines for working inclined planes.


The obvious advantages of railways as а means of conveying heavy

loads and passengers brought about а proliferation of projects. The

Liverpool & Manchester, 30 miles (48 km) long and including formidable

engineering problems, became the classic example of а steam railway for

general carriage. It opened on 15 September 1830 in the presence of the

Duke of Wellington, who had been Prime Minister until earlier in the

year. On opening day, the train stopped for water and the passengers

alighted on to the opposite track; another locomotive came along and

William Huskisson, an МР and а great advocate of the railway, was

killed. Despite this tragedy the railway was а great success; in its

first year of operation, revenue from passenger service was more than

ten times that anticipated. Over 2500 miles of railway had been

authorized in Britain and nearly 1500 completed by 1840.


Britain presented the world with а complete system for the

construction and operation of railways. Solutions were found to civil

engineering problems, motive power designs and the details of rolling

stock. The natural result of these achievements was the calling in of

British engineers to provide railways in France, where as а consequence

left-hand rujning is still in force over many lines.



Track gauges



While the majority of railways in Britain adopted the 4 ft 8.5 inch

(1.43 m) gauge of the Stockton &


Darlington Railway, the Great Western, on the advice of its brilliant

but eccentric engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, had been laid to а seven

foot (2.13 m) gauge, as were many of its associates. The resultant

inconvenience to traders caused the Gauge of Railways Act in 1846,

requiring standard gauge on all railways unless specially authorized.

The last seven-foot gauge on the Great Western was not converted until



The narrower the gauge the less expensive the construction and

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