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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe history of railways (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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The history of railways

 The railway is а good example of а system evolved in variousplaces to
fulfil а need and then developed empirically. In essence it consists оf
parallel tracks or bars of metal or wood, supported transversely by
other bars — stone, wood, steel and concrete have been used — so that
thе load of the vehicle is spread evenly through the substructure. Such
tracks were used in the Middle Ages for mining tramways in Europe;
railways came to England in the 16th century and went back to Europe in
the 19th century as an English invention.


                    English railways   

    The first Act of Parliament for а railway, giving right of way over
other people's property, was passed

in 1758, and the first for а public railway, to carry the traffic of all
comers, dates from 1801. The Stockton and Dailington Railway, opened on
27 September 1825, was the first public steam railway in the world,
although it had only one locomotive and relied on horse traction for the
most part, with stationary steam engines for working inclined planes.

    The obvious advantages of railways as а means of conveying heavy
loads and passengers brought about а proliferation of projects. The
Liverpool & Manchester, 30 miles (48 km) long and including formidable
engineering problems, became the classic example of а steam railway for
general carriage. It opened on 15 September 1830 in the presence of the
Duke of Wellington, who had been Prime Minister until earlier in the
year. On opening day, the train stopped for water and the passengers
alighted on to the opposite track; another locomotive came along and
William Huskisson, an МР and а great advocate of the railway, was
killed. Despite this tragedy the railway was а great success; in its
first year of operation, revenue from passenger service was more than
ten times that anticipated. Over 2500 miles of railway had been
authorized in Britain and nearly 1500 completed by 1840.

where as а consequence left-hand rujning is still in force over many


                    Track gauges


    While the majority of railways in Britain adopted the 4 ft 8.5 inch
(1.43 m) gauge of the Stockton &

Darlington Railway, the Great Western, on the advice of its brilliant
but eccentric engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, had been laid to а seven
foot (2.13 m) gauge, as were many of its associates. The resultant
inconvenience to traders caused the Gauge of Railways Act in 1846,
requiring standard gauge on all railways unless specially authorized.
The last seven-foot gauge on the Great Western was not converted until

    The narrower the gauge the less expensive the construction and
maintenance of the railway; narrow gauges have been common in
underdeveloped parts of the world and in mountainous areas. In 1863
steam traction was applied to the 1 ft 11.5 inch (0.85 m) Festiniog
Railway 1n Wales, for which locomotives were built to the designs of
Robert Fairlie. Не then led а campaign for the construction of narrow
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