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НазваNobel Prizes (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Nobel Prizes, annual monetary awards granted to individuals or
institutions for outstanding contributions in the fields of physics,
chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, international peace, and
economic sciences. The Nobel prizes are internationally recognized as
the most prestigious awards in each of these fields. The prizes were
established by Swedish inventor and industrialist Alfred Bernhard Nobel,
who set up a fund for them in his will. The first Nobel prizes were
awarded on December 10, 1901, the fifth anniversary of Nobel’s death.

In his will, Nobel directed that most of his fortune be invested to form
a fund, the interest of which was to be distributed annually "in the
form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have
conferred the greatest benefit on mankind." He stipulated that the
interest be divided into five equal parts, each to be awarded to the
person who made the most important contribution in one of five different
fields. In addition to the three scientific awards and the literature
award, a prize would go to the person who had done "the most or the best
work for fraternity among nations, for the abolition or reduction of
standing armies, and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses."
Nobel also specified certain institutions that would select the
prizewinners. The will indicated that “no consideration whatever shall
be given to the nationality of the candidates, but that the most worthy
shall receive the prize.” 

Alfred Nobel

After his own experiments led him to the lucrative invention of
dynamite, Alfred Nobel established a fund to reward other innovators
“contributing most materially to the benefit of mankind.” The Nobel
Prizes are awarded in the fields of chemistry, physics, physiology or
medicine, literature, international peace, and economic sciences. The
awards reflect Nobel’s interests; in addition to performing valuable
chemical research, he spoke several languages, traveled widely, and
wrote poetry. 

In 1968 the Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, created an economics
prize to commemorate the bank's 300th anniversary. This prize, called
the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science, was first awarded in 1969.
The bank provides a cash award equal to the other Nobel prizes.


In 1900 the Nobel Foundation was established to manage the fund and to
administer the activities of the institutions charged with selecting
winners. The fund is controlled by a board of directors, which serves
for two-year periods and consists of six members: five elected by the
trustees of the awarding bodies mentioned in the will, and the sixth
appointed by the Swedish government. All six members are either Swedish
or Norwegian citizens.

In his will, Nobel stated that the prizes for physics and chemistry
would be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences, the prize for
physiology or medicine by the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, the
literature prize by the Swedish Academy in Stockholm, and the peace
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