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Kyrgyz State National University

 

 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES

 

______________________________

 

Ilebaev Emil

 

Kasymov Maksat_________

 

Bishkek 2001

 

Introduction

 

In July 1780 France's Louis XVI had sent to America an expeditionary

force of 6,000 men under the Comte Jean de Rochambeau. In addition, the

French fleet harassed British shipping and prevented reinforcement and

resuppi^ of British forces in Virginia by a British fleet sailing from

New York City. French and American armies and navies, totaling 18,000

men, parried with Cornwallis all through the summer and into the fall.

Finally, on October 19, 17B1, after being trapped at Yorktown near the

mouth of Chesa-peake Bay, Cornwallis surrendered his army of 8,000

British soldiers.

 

Although Cornwallis's defeat did not immediately end the war — which

would drag on inconclusively for almost two more years — a new British

government decided to pursue peace negotiations in Paris in early 1782,

with the American side represented by Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and

John Jay. On April 15, 1783, Congress approved the final treaty, and

Great Britain and its former colonies signed it on September 3. Known as

the Treaty of Paris, the peace settlement acknowledged the independence,

freedom and sovereignty of the 13 former colonies, now states, to which

Great Britain granted the territory west to the Mississippi River, north

to Canada and south to Florida, which was returned to Spain. The

fledgling colonies that Richard Henry Lee had spoken of more than seven

years before, had finally become "free and independent states." The task

of knitting together a nation yet remained.

 

CONSTITUTION

 

During the war, the states had agreed to work together by sending

representatives to a national congress patterned after the "Congress of

Delegates" that conducted the war with England. It would raise money to

pay off debts of the war, establish a money system and deal with foreign

nations in making treaties. The agreement that set up this plan of

cooperation was called the Articles of Confederation. work together?

They believed that the Congress needed more power.

 

The plan for the government was written in very simple language in a

document called the Constitution of the United Slates. The Constitution

set up a federal system with a strong central government. A federal

system is one in which power is shared between a central authority and

its constituent parts, with some rights reserved to each. The

Constitution also called for the election of a national leader, or

president.

 

Two main fears shared by most Americans: one fear was that one person or

group, including the majority, might become too powerful or be able to

seize control of the country and create a tyranny, another fear was that

the new central government might weaken or take away the power of the

state governments to run their own affairs. To deal with this the

Constitution specified exactly what power central government had and

which power was reserved for the states.

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