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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваGenetically modified food (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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I. Introduction.

I have chosen this problem because I am extremely interested in biology,
ecology and the history of mankind. The problem of genetic modification
and cloning is very important at the present time. The theme of
genetically modified food is actual as every year it takes the greater
place in our diet. Many scientists declare danger of the use of
genetically modified food stuffs to health. They warn that consumption
of similar products is capable to lead to unpredictable consequences,
including mutations. One of big problems of a condition in that area is
that genetic engineering is being moved by extreme commercial interests.
The biotechnological companies aspire to patent and deduce on the market
all new products and new genetically modified organisms (plants and
animals), not caring about what collateral consequences genetic changes
can have. 

To please commercial interests of some huge companies any precaution is
rejected: in fact being guided by only scientific approach, it would be
necessary to test some generations of plants to be convinced of their
safety. It has not been made in a case with modified plants as process
of testing can borrow millennia. In my work I will try to describe the
positive and negative features of genetic engineering, having resulted
possible reasons and examples. In fact now there is a set of disputes
and discussions so even the urgency of this theme is proved by a simple
example - quantity of existing films and serials about this problem. 

Genetically modified products can be toxic and dangerous for people. In
1989 the modification of L-Tryptophan, the food additive, caused death
of 37 Americans and made invalids 5000 persons because of causing
sufferings and potentially fatal illness of blood. Only after that event
the product has been withdrawn from the use. According to special
explorations, genetically modified L-Tryptophan was equivalent to
previous substances which were made with the help of bacteria of natural
type. However it did not correspond to these preparations on parameters
of safety. If other tests had been carried out, for example, the test
for assimilation by animals and people, the fact that this product was
not safe would have become obvious. But such tests had not been carried

People have different points of view about whether the genetic
modification of food is a good thing – in fact it is quite a
controversial topic. Those involved in the biotechnology business insist
it is safe and that genetic modification can increase yields, reduce
waste and improve the flavour and keeping qualities of products. For
example, soft fruits can be made firmer to prevent spoilage during
transportation. People in favour of genetic modification also say that
better use can be made of agricultural land as crops can potentially be
modified to grow in hostile conditions, such as those of a drought; this
will help in feeding the world. The later is a vital issue. The same
goes for improving the nutritional value of foods. More than 800 million
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