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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваGenetically modified food (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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I. Introduction.


I have chosen this problem because I am extremely interested in biology,

ecology and the history of mankind. The problem of genetic modification

and cloning is very important at the present time. The theme of

genetically modified food is actual as every year it takes the greater

place in our diet. Many scientists declare danger of the use of

genetically modified food stuffs to health. They warn that consumption

of similar products is capable to lead to unpredictable consequences,

including mutations. One of big problems of a condition in that area is

that genetic engineering is being moved by extreme commercial interests.

The biotechnological companies aspire to patent and deduce on the market

all new products and new genetically modified organisms (plants and

animals), not caring about what collateral consequences genetic changes

can have.


To please commercial interests of some huge companies any precaution is

rejected: in fact being guided by only scientific approach, it would be

necessary to test some generations of plants to be convinced of their

safety. It has not been made in a case with modified plants as process

of testing can borrow millennia. In my work I will try to describe the

positive and negative features of genetic engineering, having resulted

possible reasons and examples. In fact now there is a set of disputes

and discussions so even the urgency of this theme is proved by a simple

example - quantity of existing films and serials about this problem.


Genetically modified products can be toxic and dangerous for people. In

1989 the modification of L-Tryptophan, the food additive, caused death

of 37 Americans and made invalids 5000 persons because of causing

sufferings and potentially fatal illness of blood. Only after that event

the product has been withdrawn from the use. According to special

explorations, genetically modified L-Tryptophan was equivalent to

previous substances which were made with the help of bacteria of natural

type. However it did not correspond to these preparations on parameters

of safety. If other tests had been carried out, for example, the test

for assimilation by animals and people, the fact that this product was

not safe would have become obvious. But such tests had not been carried



People have different points of view about whether the genetic

modification of food is a good thing – in fact it is quite a

controversial topic. Those involved in the biotechnology business insist

it is safe and that genetic modification can increase yields, reduce

waste and improve the flavour and keeping qualities of products. For

example, soft fruits can be made firmer to prevent spoilage during

transportation. People in favour of genetic modification also say that

better use can be made of agricultural land as crops can potentially be

modified to grow in hostile conditions, such as those of a drought; this

will help in feeding the world. The later is a vital issue. The same

goes for improving the nutritional value of foods. More than 800 million

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