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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваWomen’s Health and Smoking (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное Агентство по Образованию

Государственное Образовательное Учреждение

Высшего Профессионального Образования

Череповецкий Государственный Университет


Гуманитарный Институт

Кафедра Английской Филологии

Специальность 031001 - филология


Реферат: “Women’s Health and Smoking”


Выполнила: Толоконцева Н.А.

Группа: 2ФА-24

Проверила: ст.преп.

Швец В.М.


Череповец, 2005


Report: Women’s health and smoking






Factors Influencing Tobacco Use Among Women


History of Advertising Strategies


Health Consequence of Tobacco Use Among Women




Lung Cancer


Other Cancers


Cardiovascular Disease


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Lung Function


Menstrual Function


Bone Density and Fracture Risk


Other Conditions


Health Consequences of Environmental Tobacco Smoke


Smoking and Reproductive Outcomes, Cigarette Smoking Among Pregnant



Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Reproductive Outcomes


Smoking Prevalence and Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy


What Is Need to Reduce Smoking Among Women


New European anti-smoking campaign


Quitting Smoke and Attempts to Quit




The Literature List




This report summarizes what is now known about smoking among women,

including patterns and trends in smoking habits, factors associated with

starting to smoke and continuing to smoke, the consequences of smoking

on women’s health and interventions for ending and prevention. What the

report also makes clear is how the tobacco industry has historically and

contemporarily created marketing specifically targeted at women. Smoking

is the leading known cause of preventable death and disease among women.

In 2000, far more women died of lung cancer than of breast cancer. A

number of things need to be acted on to control the epidemic of smoking

and smoking-related diseases among women throughout the world.


Factors Influencing Tobacco Use Among Women


Cigarette smoking was rare among women in the early 20th century.

Cigarette smoking became prevalent among women after it did among men,

and smoking prevalence has always been lower among women than among men.

However, the gender-specific difference in smoking prevalence narrowed

between 1965 and 1985. Since 1985, the decline in prevalence among men

and women has been comparable.


Smoking prevalence decreased among women from 33.9% in 1965 to 22.0%

in 1998. Most of this decline occurred from 1974 through 1990;

prevalence declined very little from 1992 through 1998.

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