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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваWomen’s Health and Smoking (реферат)
Автор
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
Продивилось1955
Скачало147
Опис
ЗАКАЧКА
Замовити оригінальну роботу

Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное Агентство по Образованию

Государственное Образовательное Учреждение

Высшего Профессионального Образования

Череповецкий Государственный Университет

 

Гуманитарный Институт

Кафедра Английской Филологии

Специальность 031001 - филология

 

Реферат: “Women’s Health and Smoking”

 

Выполнила: Толоконцева Н.А.

Группа: 2ФА-24

Проверила: ст.преп.

Швец В.М.

 

Череповец, 2005

 

Report: Women’s health and smoking

 

Plan:

 

Introduction

 

Factors Influencing Tobacco Use Among Women

 

History of Advertising Strategies

 

Health Consequence of Tobacco Use Among Women

 

Diseases:

 

Lung Cancer

 

Other Cancers

 

Cardiovascular Disease

 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Lung Function

 

Menstrual Function

 

Bone Density and Fracture Risk

 

Other Conditions

 

Health Consequences of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

 

Smoking and Reproductive Outcomes, Cigarette Smoking Among Pregnant

Women

 

Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Reproductive Outcomes

 

Smoking Prevalence and Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy

 

What Is Need to Reduce Smoking Among Women

 

New European anti-smoking campaign

 

Quitting Smoke and Attempts to Quit

 

Conclusion

 

The Literature List

 

Introduction

 

This report summarizes what is now known about smoking among women,

including patterns and trends in smoking habits, factors associated with

starting to smoke and continuing to smoke, the consequences of smoking

on women’s health and interventions for ending and prevention. What the

report also makes clear is how the tobacco industry has historically and

contemporarily created marketing specifically targeted at women. Smoking

is the leading known cause of preventable death and disease among women.

In 2000, far more women died of lung cancer than of breast cancer. A

number of things need to be acted on to control the epidemic of smoking

and smoking-related diseases among women throughout the world.

 

Factors Influencing Tobacco Use Among Women

 

Cigarette smoking was rare among women in the early 20th century.

Cigarette smoking became prevalent among women after it did among men,

and smoking prevalence has always been lower among women than among men.

However, the gender-specific difference in smoking prevalence narrowed

between 1965 and 1985. Since 1985, the decline in prevalence among men

and women has been comparable.

 

Smoking prevalence decreased among women from 33.9% in 1965 to 22.0%

in 1998. Most of this decline occurred from 1974 through 1990;

prevalence declined very little from 1992 through 1998.

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