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НазваComparative Adjectives (реферат)
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РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Comparative Adjectives

 

When we talk about 2 things, we can "compare" them. We can see if they

are the same or different. Perhaps they are the same in some ways and

different in other ways.

 

A       B

 

We can use comparative adjectives to describe the differences. "A is

bigger than B."

 

Formation of Comparative Adjectives

 

There are two ways to form a comparative adjective:

 

short adjectives: add '-er'

 

long adjectives: use 'more'

 

Short adjectives

 

1-syllable adjectives old, fast

 

2-syllable adjectives ending in -y happy, easy

 

Normal rule: add '-er' old > older

 

Variation: if the adjective ends in -e, just add -r late > later

 

Variation: if the adjective ends in consonant, vowel, consonant, double

the last consonant big > bigger

 

Variation: if the adjective ends in -y, change the -y to -i happy >

happier

 

Long adjectives

 

2-syllable adjectives not ending in -y modern, pleasant

 

all adjectives of 3 or more syllables expensive, intellectual

 

Normal rule: use 'more' modern > more modern

 

expensive > more expensive

 

Tip. With some 2-syllable adjectives, we can use '-er' or 'more':

 

quiet > quieter/more quiet

 

clever > cleverer/more clever

 

narrow > narrower/more narrow

 

simple > simpler/more simple

 

Exception! The following adjectives have irregular forms:

 

good > better

 

well (healthy) > better

 

bad > worse

 

far > farther/further

 

Use of Comparative Adjectives

 

We use comparative adjectives when talking about 2 things (not 3 or 10

or 1,000,000 things, only 2 things).

 

Often, the comparative adjective is followed by 'than'.

 

Look at these examples:

 

John is 1m80. He is tall. But Chris is 1m85. He is taller than John.

 

America is big. But Russia is bigger.

 

I want to have a more powerful computer.

 

Is French more difficult than English?

 

If we talk about the two planets Earth and Mars, we can compare them

like this:

 

  Earth Mars  

 

Diameter (km) 12,760 6,790 Mars is smaller than Earth.

 

Distance from Sun (million km) 150 228 Mars is more distant from the

Sun.

 

Length of day (hours) 24 25 A day on Mars is slightly longer than a day

on Earth.

 

Moons 1 2 Mars has more moons than Earth.

 

Surface temperature (°C) 22 -23 Mars is colder than Earth.

 

 

 

Superlative Adjectives

 

Comparison is between 2 things: "A is bigger than B."

 

A       B

 

But the superlative is the extreme between 3 or more things. "A is the

biggest."

 

A       B       C

 

Formation of Superlative Adjectives

 

As with comparative adjectives, there are two ways to form a superlative

adjective:

 

short adjectives: add '-est'

 

long adjectives: use 'most'

 

We also usually add 'the' at the beginning.

 

Short adjectives

 

1-syllable adjectives old, fast

 

2-syllable adjectives ending in -y happy, easy

 

Normal rule: add '-est' old > the oldest

 

Variation: if the adjective ends in -e, just add -st late > the latest

 

Variation: if the adjective ends in consonant, vowel, consonant, double

the last consonant big > the biggest

 

Variation: if the adjective ends in -y, change the -y to -i happy > the

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