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НазваPolitical Aspects of European Integration (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Course Essay

Political Aspects of European Integration

By: Yaroslav Sinitsov, EUBL

Has the EU reached the limits of integration?


Before answering this question, let us face some obvious facts. So far,
the European Union has been the most advanced and successful alliances
of the independent countries in the modern history. One cannot deny that
it is only the EU which established – at least in the first pillar – a
new legal order for its Member States, by which they voluntarily shared
their sovereignty based on the rule of law in order to achieve the
common task, as set forth by Article 2 of the Treaty Establishing the
European Community: ‘ promote throughout the Community a harmonious
and balanced development of economic activities, sustainable and
non-inflationary growth respecting the environment, a high degree of
convergence of economic performance, a high level of employment and of
social protection, the raising of a standard of living and quality of
life, and economic and social cohesion and solidarity among Member
States.’ But as with any other international treaty, there is always
room for diversity in interpretation. If the right to interpret the
Treaty provisions and other Community legislation had been vested in
Member States, the EU would have been nothing different but just another
international treaty nicely falling within the general system of public
international law, where no contracting party can be bound against its
will. The EU is unique to have the European Court of Justice which,
unlike any other international tribunals, has a compulsory jurisdiction
and an exclusive authority to interpret the Community legislation. By
widely interpreting the EC legislation and relying not just on the text,
but also on ‘the spirit’ of the Treaty, the European Court of Justice
has actually developed its own doctrine which is now seen as one of the
important sources of the Community law. This doctrine has played a
crucial role in implementing EU policies, since the text of the Treaty
and other Community legislation cannot cover in detail all aspects of

Main Part

But why integrate? What makes people act against their cautious
political interests? The answer was given by Jean Monnet, one of the
founding fathers of the European Communities and a lover of aphorisms -
“People only accept changes when faced with necessity, and only
recognise necessity when the crisis is upon them”. Although I completely
agree with the first part of Monnet’s saying, I would like to replace
the word ‘only’ with the word ‘better’. A deep crisis is probably the
most powerful impetus to bring people’s and countries together, although
not the only one. This is exactly what happened immediately after the
World War II. The need for fundamental political and economic change in
Europe was extremely strong. As the Cold War commenced and the Iron
Curtain abruptly divided the continent, integration became a means by
which the Western Europe could defend itself, in close co-operation with
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