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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваEducation in the Middle Ages (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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The Russian State Social University

Report on Pedagogics.

“Education in the Middle Ages”

	Made by the first-year

	student of faculty of

	foreign languages,



	Chrcked by Khajrullin

	Ruslan Zinatullovich.




  TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u    HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750724"   

  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750725"  Preface	  PAGEREF _Toc105750725 \h  3  

  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750726"  Education in the Orthodox Christian
Civilization	  PAGEREF _Toc105750726 \h  3  

  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750727"  The Russian offshoot of the Orthodox
Christian Civilization	  PAGEREF _Toc105750727 \h  5  

  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750728"  Education in the Western Civilization	 
PAGEREF _Toc105750728 \h  9  

  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750729"  Conclusion	  PAGEREF _Toc105750729 \h 

  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750730"  bibliographic List	  PAGEREF
_Toc105750730 \h  14  



In A.D. 476 the Roman Empire, as universal state of the Hellenic
Civilization, collapsed. This date is considered to be the beginning of
the European Middle Ages. The Middle Ages covers the period from the
fifth century till the sixteenth century. Middle Ages are divided into
the early Middle Ages (V-IX centuries), the Middle Ages (X-XIII
centuries), and Renaissance (XIV-XVI centuries).

Education in the Orthodox Christian Civilization

Although the stages in the history of the Orthodox Christian
Civilization can be identified and dated, the scanty materials about
education do not permit a comparable division in the development
thereof. There were scholars in plenty in the society at many different
stages, but education is rarely described either by them or by the
historians, and the allusions to curricula, methods, and personnel are
for the most part vague and ambiguous. There is little direct evidence
about schools; what indirect evidence there is must be derived almost
entirely from biographies of a relatively few individuals.

One of the distinguishing characteristics of the Orthodox Christian
Civilization was the close relationship between church and state, in
antithesis to the separation of church and state in the Western world.
The whole outlook and orientation of the society was grounded in
religion so that the church, as the official institution of religion,
exerted an incalculably great influence on all aspects of life including
the "secular every-day education" and the affairs of the state supported

At the same time, however, public education in the society was
predominantly secular and independent of the church. Little is known
about primary and secondary, but it is Marrou's opinion that in the
East, there was a "direct continuation" of the classical education that
prevailed under the Roman Empire. Certainly the basis continued to be
grammar and the classics, and the same textbooks and commentaries
continued to be used and copied. In higher education, the dominant
institution was the university at Constantinople, which had been founded
A.D. 425 by Theodosius II, and the curriculum in it remained entirely
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