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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваEducation in the Middle Ages (реферат)
Автор
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
Продивилось1734
Скачало135
Опис
ЗАКАЧКА
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The Russian State Social University

 

Report on Pedagogics.

 

“Education in the Middle Ages”

 

Made by the first-year

 

student of faculty of

 

foreign languages,

 

 

 

Chrcked by Khajrullin

 

Ruslan Zinatullovich.

 

Moscow

 

2005

 

Contents

 

TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750724"

 

HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750725" Preface PAGEREF _Toc105750725 \h 3

 

HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750726" Education in the Orthodox Christian

Civilization PAGEREF _Toc105750726 \h 3

 

HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750727" The Russian offshoot of the Orthodox

Christian Civilization PAGEREF _Toc105750727 \h 5

 

HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750728" Education in the Western Civilization

PAGEREF _Toc105750728 \h 9

 

HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750729" Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc105750729 \h

13

 

HYPERLINK \l "_Toc105750730" bibliographic List PAGEREF

_Toc105750730 \h 14

 

 

Preface

 

In A.D. 476 the Roman Empire, as universal state of the Hellenic

Civilization, collapsed. This date is considered to be the beginning of

the European Middle Ages. The Middle Ages covers the period from the

fifth century till the sixteenth century. Middle Ages are divided into

the early Middle Ages (V-IX centuries), the Middle Ages (X-XIII

centuries), and Renaissance (XIV-XVI centuries).

 

Education in the Orthodox Christian Civilization

 

Although the stages in the history of the Orthodox Christian

Civilization can be identified and dated, the scanty materials about

education do not permit a comparable division in the development

thereof. There were scholars in plenty in the society at many different

stages, but education is rarely described either by them or by the

historians, and the allusions to curricula, methods, and personnel are

for the most part vague and ambiguous. There is little direct evidence

about schools; what indirect evidence there is must be derived almost

entirely from biographies of a relatively few individuals.

 

One of the distinguishing characteristics of the Orthodox Christian

Civilization was the close relationship between church and state, in

antithesis to the separation of church and state in the Western world.

The whole outlook and orientation of the society was grounded in

religion so that the church, as the official institution of religion,

exerted an incalculably great influence on all aspects of life including

the "secular every-day education" and the affairs of the state supported

university.

 

At the same time, however, public education in the society was

predominantly secular and independent of the church. Little is known

about primary and secondary, but it is Marrou's opinion that in the

East, there was a "direct continuation" of the classical education that

prevailed under the Roman Empire. Certainly the basis continued to be

grammar and the classics, and the same textbooks and commentaries

continued to be used and copied. In higher education, the dominant

institution was the university at Constantinople, which had been founded

A.D. 425 by Theodosius II, and the curriculum in it remained entirely

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