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На тему «The Tower Of London»


Студента 103 группы I курса факультета Социологии


Варнавского Евгения




The Development of the Tower


The Normans


The Medieval Tower


The Tower in Tudor Times


The Restoration and After


The Tower in the 19th Century


The 20th Century


The Tower of London


The History of the Tower of London


Fortress, Palace and Prison


This short history of the Tower of London charts the different stages of

its development. Throughout its history, the Tower has attracted a

number of important functions and its role as armoury, royal palace,

prison and fortress is explained, as well as its modern role as tourist

attraction and home to a thriving community.


The development of the Tower


The Tower of London was begun in the reign of William the Conqueror

(1066-1087) and remained unchanged for over a century. Then, between

1190 and 1285, the White Tower was encircled by two towered curtain

walls and a great moat. The only important enlargement of the Tower

after that time was the building of the Wharf in the 14th century. Today

the medieval defences remain relatively unchanged.


The Normans


Westm PRIVATE Castle building was an essential part of the Norman

Conquest: when Duke William of Normandy invaded England in 1066 his

first action after landing at Pevensey on 28 September had been to

improvise a castle, and when he moved to Hastings two days later he

built another. Over the next few years William and his supporters were

engaged in building hundreds more, first to conquer, then subdue and

finally to colonise the whole of England.


By the end of the Anglo-Saxon period London had become the most powerful

city in England, with a rich port, a nearby royal palace and an

important cathedral. It was via London that King Harold II (1066) and

his army sped south to meet William, and to London which the defeated

rabble of the English army returned from the Battle of Hastings in 1066.

Securing the City was therefore of the utmost importance to William. His

contemporary biographer William of Poitiers tells us that after

receiving the submission of the English magnates at Little

Berkhampstead, William sent an advance guard into London to construct a

castle and prepare for his triumphal entry. He also tells us that, after

his coronation in inster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066, the new King

withdrew to Barking (in Essex)


‘while certain fortifications were completed in the city against the

restlessness of the vast and fierce populace for he realised that it was

of the first importance to overawe the Londoners.


These fortifications may have included Baynard’s Castle built in the

south-west angle of the City (near Blackfriars) and the castle of

Monfichet (near Ludgate Circus) and almost certainly the future Tower of

London. Initially the Tower had consisted of a modest enclosure built

into the south-east corner of the Roman City walls, but by the late

1070s, with the initial completion of the White Tower, it had become the

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