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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваVygotsky’s psychological views (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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The Russian State Social University

Report on Psychology.

“Vygotsky’s psychological views”

	Made by the second-year

	student of faculty of

	foreign languages,


	Checked by Khajrullin

	Ruslan Zinatullovich.




  TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u    HYPERLINK \l "_Toc125009879"  Preface	 
PAGEREF _Toc125009879 \h  3  

  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc125009880"  A  Biographical Sketch	  PAGEREF
_Toc125009880 \h  5  

  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc125009881"  Vygotsky’s Theoretical Approach	 
PAGEREF _Toc125009881 \h  9  

  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc125009882"  Conclusion	  PAGEREF _Toc125009882 \h 

  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc125009883"  Bibliographic List	  PAGEREF
_Toc125009883 \h  13  



Like the humanities and other social sciences, psychology is supposed to
tell us something about what it means to be human.

However, many critics, including such eminent members of the discipline
as J.S. Bruner (1976), have questioned whether academic psychology has
succeeded in this endeavor. One of the major stumbling, blocks that has
diverted psychology from this goal is that psychologists  have too often
isolated and studied phenomena in such a way that they cannot
communicate with one another, let alone with members of other
disciplines. They have tended to lose sign of the fact that their
untimate goal is to contribute to some integrated, holistic picture of
human nature.

This intellectual isolation is nowhere more evident than in the division
that separates studies of individual psychology from studies of the
sociocultural environment in which individuals live. In psychology we
tend to view culture of society as a variable to be incorporated into
models of individual functioning. This represents a kind of reductionism
which assumes that sociocultural phenomena can ultimately be explained
on the basis of psychological processes. Conversely, sociologists and
social problems because the derive straightforwardly from social
phenomena. This view may not involve the kind of reductionism found in
the work of psychologists, but it is no less naпve. Many aspects of
psychological functioning cannot be explained by assuming that they
derive solely and simply from the sociocultural milieu.

This disciplinary isolation is not attributable simply to a lack of
cooperation among various scholars. Rather, those interested in social
phenomena and those interested in psychological phenomena have defined
their objects of inquiry in such different ways that they have almost
guaranteed the impossibility of mutual understanding. For decades this
problem has been of concern to those seeking to construct a unified
social science. Critical theorists such as T. Adorno and J. Habermas
(1979) have struggled with it since the 19405. According to Adorno, “the
separation of sociology and psychology is both correct and false” (1967,
p. 78). It is correct because it recognizes different levels of
phenomena that exist in reality; that is, it helps us avoid the pitfalls
of reductionism. It is false, however, because it too readily
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