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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваVygotsky’s psychological views (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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The Russian State Social University


Report on Psychology.


“Vygotsky’s psychological views”


Made by the second-year


student of faculty of


foreign languages,



Checked by Khajrullin


Ruslan Zinatullovich.








TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u HYPERLINK \l "_Toc125009879" Preface

PAGEREF _Toc125009879 \h 3


HYPERLINK \l "_Toc125009880" A Biographical Sketch PAGEREF

_Toc125009880 \h 5


HYPERLINK \l "_Toc125009881" Vygotsky’s Theoretical Approach

PAGEREF _Toc125009881 \h 9


HYPERLINK \l "_Toc125009882" Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc125009882 \h



HYPERLINK \l "_Toc125009883" Bibliographic List PAGEREF

_Toc125009883 \h 13





Like the humanities and other social sciences, psychology is supposed to

tell us something about what it means to be human.


However, many critics, including such eminent members of the discipline

as J.S. Bruner (1976), have questioned whether academic psychology has

succeeded in this endeavor. One of the major stumbling, blocks that has

diverted psychology from this goal is that psychologists have too often

isolated and studied phenomena in such a way that they cannot

communicate with one another, let alone with members of other

disciplines. They have tended to lose sign of the fact that their

untimate goal is to contribute to some integrated, holistic picture of

human nature.


This intellectual isolation is nowhere more evident than in the division

that separates studies of individual psychology from studies of the

sociocultural environment in which individuals live. In psychology we

tend to view culture of society as a variable to be incorporated into

models of individual functioning. This represents a kind of reductionism

which assumes that sociocultural phenomena can ultimately be explained

on the basis of psychological processes. Conversely, sociologists and

social problems because the derive straightforwardly from social

phenomena. This view may not involve the kind of reductionism found in

the work of psychologists, but it is no less naive. Many aspects of

psychological functioning cannot be explained by assuming that they

derive solely and simply from the sociocultural milieu.


This disciplinary isolation is not attributable simply to a lack of

cooperation among various scholars. Rather, those interested in social

phenomena and those interested in psychological phenomena have defined

their objects of inquiry in such different ways that they have almost

guaranteed the impossibility of mutual understanding. For decades this

problem has been of concern to those seeking to construct a unified

social science. Critical theorists such as T. Adorno and J. Habermas

(1979) have struggled with it since the 19405. According to Adorno, “the

separation of sociology and psychology is both correct and false” (1967,

p. 78). It is correct because it recognizes different levels of

phenomena that exist in reality; that is, it helps us avoid the pitfalls

of reductionism. It is false, however, because it too readily

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