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: 2016-10-24
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History of runic alphabets ()
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Word Doc

History of runic alphabets

Fulfilled by the second year student of 

Rostov State Pedagogical University

Translation Department

Neustroev Cyril

Checked by



From ancient times mankind was appealed by unknown writings:
half-forgotten antique languages, Egypt hieroglyphs, Indian
inscriptions The fate of runes was much happy  their sense wasnt lost
in the course of time, even when Latin alphabet became dominating one in
Europe. For instance, runes were used in calendars till the end of the
18-th c. 

Modern linguists think that runes posses another kind of meaning, which
we cannot find in ideograms, hieroglyphs or in modern exotic alphabets 
this meaning exists in subconsciousness level. Runes were the
personification of the surrounding world, essence of outlook. With the
help of special links between runes a man could express nearly
everything, compiling them (so called combined runes). In different
times runes could change their meaning, so we can say this adjusting
system created dozens of meanings of one and the same symbol. (Linguists
find   confirmation of this theory in the following example  every rune
in different languages had separate and original meaning, which didnt
fully coincide with another one in the second language.

Like all others components of language, runes endured numerous changes:
in form, style of writing, system of sounds and letters, which expressed
them. We can say, that these alphabets took wide spreading not only
among Scandinavian and German tribes, but we can also trace its
penetration in Celtic and Slavonic languages. Now runes keep their main
original meaning - in the beginning they were the symbols of
fortunetelling lore with sacred sense and mystic signs (The general
matter why they didnt get wide diffusion before AD). Even the word
rune corresponds as secret (compare old Celtic run, middle welsh
rown, modern German raunen). The last 1000 years in Iceland runes
have been used for divination. In Anglo-Saxon England the hours of king
council were called runes.

The most important sources about runic history are ancient texts of
Scandinavian pagan religion  Old Edda by Brynolf Swesson and Lesser
Edda by Snorri Sturlusson. They were two missionaries who discovered
these manuscripts in the time of Christian expansion. Another documents
containing the information about runes origin are Northern king sagas
Red leather and Icelandic kin chronicles. Tombstones, altars, pagan
pillars called runic stones played quite catholic role in scientific
researches - usually they are found dappled with miscellaneous writings
(Gothland, Upland, Norway). The most famous is Cilwer stone, which dates
from the 5-th c. So we can find a lot of writings on jewels and weapon,
for barbarians believed things had to posses their own names

German and Slavonic runic writing was the letter system of peculiar
look, accounted by the writing technique on bone, wood and metal.
Nowadays we have the main runic alphabet, consisting of 24 signs, may be
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