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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваSome Famous Illuminated Manuscripts (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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1) Some Famous Illuminated Manuscripts.


It is usual to regard English painting as beginning with the Tudor

period and for this are several reasons. Yet the fact remains that

painting was practised in England for many hundred years before the

first Tudors came to the throne.


The development of the linear design in which English artists have

always excelled can be traced back to the earliest illuminations

brilliantly evolved in irish monastic centres and brought to Northumbria

in the seventh century. Its principal feature is that wonderful

elaboration of interlaced ornament derived from the patterns of

metal-work in the Celtic Iron Age, which is to be found in the Book of

Kells and Lindesfarne Gospel, its Northumbrian equivalent.


The greatest achievement in Irish manuscript illumination, the Book of

Kells is now generally assigned to the late eighth or early ninth

century. The Book of Kells is a manuscrept of the gospes of rather

large size(33*24 cm)written on thick glazed vellum. Its pages were

originally still larger; but a binder, a century or so ago, clipped away

their margins, cutting even into edges of the illuminations. Otherwise

the manuscript is in relatively good condition, in spite of another

earlier misadventure. The great gospel, on account of its wrought

shrine, was wickedly stolen in the night from the sacresty of the

church and was found a few months later stripped of its gold, under a

sod. Finally the manuscript passed to trinity college, where it is



No manuscript approaches the book of kells for elaborate ornamentation.

A continuous chain of ornamentation runs through the text. The

capitals at the beginning of each paragraph--two, three, cour to a

page--are made of brightly coloured entwinements of birds, snakes,

destorted men and quadrupeds, fighting or performing all sorts of

acrebatic feats. Other animals wander about the pages between the lines

or on top of them.


The thirteenth century had been the century of the great cathedrals, in

which nearly all branches of art had their share. Work on these immense

enterprises contunued into the fourteenth century and even beyond, but

they were no longer the main focus of art. We must remember that the

world had changed a great deal during that peiod. In the middle of the

twelfth century Europe was still a thinly populated continent of

peasants with moasteries and baron's castles as the main centres of

power and learning. But a hundred and fifty years later towns had grown

into centres of trade whose burghers felt increasingly independent of

the poweof the Church and the fuedal lords. Even the nobles no longer

lived a life of grim seclusion in their fortified manors, but moved to

the cities with their comfort and fashionable luxury there to display

their wealth at the courts of the mighty. We can get a very vivid idea

of what life in the fourteenth century was like if we remember the works

of Chaucer, with his knights and squires, friars and artisans.

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