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НазваTraditions and holidays of Great Britain (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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The morphological structure of a word. Morphemes. Types of morphemes.



Structural types of words.


Principles of morphemic analysis.


Derivational level of analysis. Stems. Types of stems. Derivational

types of words.


The morphological structure of a word. Morphemes. Types of Morphemes.



There are two levels of approach to the study of word- structure: the

level of morphemic analysis and the level of derivational or

word-formation analysis.


Word is the principal and basic unit of the language system, the largest

on the morphologic and the smallest on the syntactic plane of linguistic



It has been universally acknowledged that a great many words have a

composite nature and are made up of morphemes, the basic units on the

morphemic level, which are defined as the smallest indivisible two-facet

language units.


The term morpheme is derived from Greek morphe “form ”+ -eme. The Greek

suffix –eme has been adopted by linguistic to denote the smallest unit

or the minimum distinctive feature.


The morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of form. A form in these

cases a recurring discrete unit of speech. Morphemes occur in speech

only as constituent parts of words, not independently, although a word

may consist of single morpheme. Even a cursory examination of the

morphemic structure of English words reveals that they are composed of

morphemes of different types: root-morphemes and affixational morphemes.

Words that consist of a root and an affix are called derived words or

derivatives and are produced by the process of word building known as

affixation (or derivation).


The root-morpheme is the lexical nucleus of the word; it has a very

general and abstract lexical meaning common to a set of semantically

related words constituting one word-cluster, e.g. (to) teach, teacher,

teaching. Besides the lexical meaning root-morphemes possess all other

types of meaning proper to morphemes except the part-of-speech meaning

which is not found in roots.


Affixational morphemes include inflectional affixes or inflections and

derivational affixes. Inflections carry only grammatical meaning and are

thus relevant only for the formation of word-forms. Derivational affixes

are relevant for building various types of words. They are lexically

always dependent on the root which they modify. They possess the same

types of meaning as found in roots, but unlike root-morphemes most of

them have the part-of-speech meaning which makes them structurally the

important part of the word as they condition the lexico-grammatical

class the word belongs to. Due to this component of their meaning the

derivational affixes are classified into affixes building different

parts of speech: nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs.


Roots and derivational affixes are generally easily distinguished and

the difference between them is clearly felt as, e.g., in the words

helpless, handy, blackness, Londoner, refill, etc.: the root-morphemes

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