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НазваMuslim Faith and the Nation of Islam (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Eleonora Karamiants

Muslim Faith and the Nation of Islam

Dr. Laughlin

Winter, 2001


Tasawuf, or Sufism is the esoteric school of Islam, founded on the
pursuit of spiritual truth as a definite goal to attain: the truth of
understanding reality as it truly is, as knowledge.  When Sufism speaks
of understanding of insight that refers to the perfect
self-understanding that enchains the understanding of the Divine. Sufis
believe that it is the unique human right and privilege to be able to
find the way towards understanding and reality of the Divine.  

The origins of Sufism still are a highly debated topic amongst scholars.
 Some accounts refer the rise of the mystical school during reign of Abu
Bakr and later, Usman, other sources point at the flourishing in a
sinful abundance of wealth Umayyads’ regime, when Islam ceased
practicing spiritual, mental and physical rigors.  However, another
version suggests the Prophet Muhammad to be the founder of Sufism.  The
mysterious time he spent in mountains contemplating and, perhaps,
meditating before the encounter with divinity along with certain
quotations from Hadith, the compendium of stories and sayings of the
Prophet, permits a legitimate presumption that Muhammad, at least
indirectly correlates to the establishment of the esoteric school of
Islam.  “An hour of contemplation is better than a year of prayer”
(Ch.7, p.92) directly contradicts the custom of traditional praying at
mosque.  Sufis cultivate the seed of a school of spiritual practice
based on knowledge of the self.  Avoiding persuasive public prayers,
their gatherings were held in private.  Instead of preaching in public,
these pious individuals were searches of truth and not rhetorical
opponents – “the first stage of worship is silence”(Ch.7. p.89.)

As the perceptive tools of ordinary mental logic are limited in their
ability to comprehend such a great and all-embracing subject based on
language alone cannot open any door to understanding such reality. 
Instead such a path of understanding demands spiritual striving, the
understanding and the knowledge of the heart, in its quest to realize
the existence of the Divine.  

	Become a person of the heart,

or at least the devotee of one;

Or else, you will remain

Like a donkey stuck in the mud.

			(Rumi, Ch.9, p.103)

Between God and a human lies nothing, except for artificial obstacles to
the unifying created by humanity.  This veil hinders a seeker from
ascending to the level of Reality (Bayazid Bistami, Ch.10, p.111 top.) 
If people were free from the limitations of the material and physical
tools that humankind possesses; thus, the immense and eternal unity of
all the Being, the Creator and His creations would become transparent. 
According to Sufis, there is a chance for humanity to ascend to such a
level of understanding, a path that can be traced through purification
and meditation to the realization of its achievement.  As al-Ghazzali
believes, when one’s heart is purified, the “light of divine secrets” is
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