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НазваRock music in Britain (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Федеральное агентство по образованию Российской Федерации

Новгородский государственный университет  им. Ярослава Мудрого

Реферат на тему:

Rock music in Britain



Студент группы 1262

Иванов Я. О.


Александрова Г. П.

В. Новгород

2006 г.

History of British music

Little survives of the early music of Britain, by which is meant the
music that was used by the people before the establishment of musical
notation in the medieval period. Much that survives of folk music must
have had its origins in this period, although the melodies played by
morris dancers and other traditional groups can also be from a later

Some of the earliest music to remain is either church music, or else is
in the form of carols or ballads dating from the 16th century or
earlier. Troubadors carried an international courtly style across
western Europe. It was common in times before copyright for melodies to
be interchangeable, and the same melodies will often have been used
(with differing words) for secular and religious purposes. Melodies like
that of the Sussex Carol or Greensleeves will have had a long history of
eclectic use over the centuries.

During the 15th century, a vigorous tradition of polyphony developed in
Britain, as exemplified in the music of composers such as Leonel Power,
John Dunstable and Robert Fayrfax. The music of this school was famous
on the continent, and occasionally rivaled the music of the contemporary
Burgundian school in expressiveness and renown; indeed Dunstable is
recognized as one of the strongest influences on the early development
of the music of the Burgundians. Unfortunately, however, the vast
majority of British music manuscripts from this period were destroyed
during the Dissolution of the Monasteries carried out by Henry VIII in
the late 1530s; only a few isolated survivals remain, including the Old
Hall Manuscript, the Eton Choirbook, the Winchester Troper, and a
handful of scattered sources from the continent.

16th to 17th Centuries

With the growth in wealth and leisure-time for the noble classes, tastes
in music began to diverge sharply. While in the early part of the period
it is possible for tavern songs like Pastime with Good Companie to be
attributed (apocryphally) to King Henry VIII, by the middle 16th Century
there were distinct styles of music enjoyed by the differing social
classes. Renaissance influences made the acquisition of musical
knowledge an almost essential attribute for the nobleman and woman, and
ability to play an instrument became an almost mandatory social grace.

The Rennaisance influence also internationalized courtly music in terms
of both instruments and content, the lute dulcimer and early forms of
the harpsichord were played, ballads and madrigals were sung. The pavane
and galliard were danced. Henry Purcell became court composer to King
Charles II and wrote incidental music to plays and events.

For other classes instruments like pipe, tabor, bagpipe shawm,
hurdygurdy and crumhorn accompanied folk music and community dance. The
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