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Федеральное агентство по образованию Российской Федерации

 

Новгородский государственный университет им. Ярослава Мудрого

 

Реферат на тему:

 

Rock music in Britain

 

 

Выполнил:

 

Студент группы 1262

 

Иванов Я. О.

 

Проверила:

 

Александрова Г. П.

 

В. Новгород

 

2006 г.

 

History of British music

 

Little survives of the early music of Britain, by which is meant the

music that was used by the people before the establishment of musical

notation in the medieval period. Much that survives of folk music must

have had its origins in this period, although the melodies played by

morris dancers and other traditional groups can also be from a later

period.

 

Some of the earliest music to remain is either church music, or else is

in the form of carols or ballads dating from the 16th century or

earlier. Troubadors carried an international courtly style across

western Europe. It was common in times before copyright for melodies to

be interchangeable, and the same melodies will often have been used

(with differing words) for secular and religious purposes. Melodies like

that of the Sussex Carol or Greensleeves will have had a long history of

eclectic use over the centuries.

 

During the 15th century, a vigorous tradition of polyphony developed in

Britain, as exemplified in the music of composers such as Leonel Power,

John Dunstable and Robert Fayrfax. The music of this school was famous

on the continent, and occasionally rivaled the music of the contemporary

Burgundian school in expressiveness and renown; indeed Dunstable is

recognized as one of the strongest influences on the early development

of the music of the Burgundians. Unfortunately, however, the vast

majority of British music manuscripts from this period were destroyed

during the Dissolution of the Monasteries carried out by Henry VIII in

the late 1530s; only a few isolated survivals remain, including the Old

Hall Manuscript, the Eton Choirbook, the Winchester Troper, and a

handful of scattered sources from the continent.

 

16th to 17th Centuries

 

With the growth in wealth and leisure-time for the noble classes, tastes

in music began to diverge sharply. While in the early part of the period

it is possible for tavern songs like Pastime with Good Companie to be

attributed (apocryphally) to King Henry VIII, by the middle 16th Century

there were distinct styles of music enjoyed by the differing social

classes. Renaissance influences made the acquisition of musical

knowledge an almost essential attribute for the nobleman and woman, and

ability to play an instrument became an almost mandatory social grace.

 

The Rennaisance influence also internationalized courtly music in terms

of both instruments and content, the lute dulcimer and early forms of

the harpsichord were played, ballads and madrigals were sung. The pavane

and galliard were danced. Henry Purcell became court composer to King

Charles II and wrote incidental music to plays and events.

 

For other classes instruments like pipe, tabor, bagpipe shawm,

hurdygurdy and crumhorn accompanied folk music and community dance. The

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