найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe cinema in Russia today (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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If you want to go to the cinema in Britain today you will have to face

two problems. The first is to find a cinema in your locality which is

still showing films and which has not been turned into a bowling alley,

a bingo hall or a ballroom. The second is to find a film worth seeing.


The large industrial cities used to have five or six cinemas in the

centre and about thirty in the suburbs. Even small towns had several

cinemas. But since the advent of television, cinemas have been closing

down at an alarming rate. Between 1948 and 1962 half the cinemas in

Britain closed down, and the attendances dropped by over two-thirds. The

downward curve, although less sharp, is still continuing. Most cinemas

in Britain run continuous performances from about midday to eleven at

night. Tickets cannot be booked in advance except at some West End

cinemas and a few in the provinces. Practically all new films have a

premiere run at one of the big West End cinemas owned by giant cinema

companies. The length of the premiere run depends on its financial

success, and the tendency, especially with the huge epic spectaculars,

is for longer and longer premiere runs — sometimes several years.


General release cinemas are in the grip of a double monopoly — Rank and

A.B.C. Between them, in 1960, these two film giants owned 638 of the 2,

819 cinemas in Britain. Although this is a numerical minority, it •

represents all the key cinemas in the country; for while the rest of the

cinemas are grouped in small privately-owned chains of three, four or

perhaps a dozen, the Rank and A.B.C. cinemas form two major networks all

over the country, and no British film can hope even to cover its costs

unless it is booked by one or other of these circuits. Moreover, banks

will not advance money to film producers unless they have a guarantee of

distribution through companies linked with one or other of these two



Consequently, producers who do not toe the line are not only effectively

banned from the majority of the screens of this country, but also

virtually prevented from making films. (Some recent exceptions to this

have emerged — small, genuinely independent productions made with money

gathered from private sources by young producers determined to break the

iron grip of the duopoly, with its sole aim of profit.) There are

several reasons why the film industry is losing audiences.


Many film magnates put the blame on television, and this was certainly a

major cause at the beginning. But since television audience figures have

now passed their peak, while cinema audiences continue to decline, part

of the answer must be sought in the quality of the films now being



In the socialist countries, the film industries have accepted the

challenge by striving to make better films. Many of the film tycoons in

Britain have sought the exactly opposite solution. In the fifties they

tried to lure the public back into the cinema with all sorts of films

with an accent on horror and the lowest kind of pornography. This

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