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James Joyce ()
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Aliona Kolesnik

 

Form 11-C

 

James Joyce

 

(1882-1941)

 

PRIVATE INCLUDEPICTURE \d "Portrets\\JoycePortret1.jpg" Joyce,

James Augustine Aloysius (1882-1941), Irish novelist and poet, whose

psychological perceptions and innovative literary techniques, as

demonstrated in his epic novel Ulysses, make him one of the most

influential writers of the 20th century. Joyce was born in Dublin on

February 2, 1882, the son of a poverty-stricken civil servant. He was

educated at Jesuit schools, including University College, Dublin.

Raised in the Roman Catholic faith, he broke with the church while he

was in college. In 1904 he left Dublin with Nora Barnacle, a chambermaid

whom he eventually married. They and their two children lived in

Trieste, Italy, in Paris, and in Zurich, Switzerland, meagerly supported

by Joyce's jobs as a language instructor and by gifts from patrons. In

1907 Joyce suffered an attack of iritis, the first of the severe eye

troubles that led to near blindness. After 20 years in Paris, early in

World War II, when the Germans invaded France, Joyce moved to Zurich,

where he died on January 13, 1941.

 

James Joyce was the first who introduce the psychological

discoveries of S. Freud into fiction. He did not write very much, but

what he wrote was revolutionary. After his first books, The Dubliners

brilliant short stories of simple citizens of Dublin and A Portrait

of the Artist as a Young Man an auto biographical report of his own

youth he developed the rest of his own life only to two books. The

first, Ulysses , takes us through the idle wanderings of a Dublin Jew,

Leopold Bloom, from the beginning to the end of one single day. The

fusion of facts and feelings, of external events and internal

reflections is so disconcerting that you are often puzzled, sometimes

bored and sometimes left like an idiot. But reading on, you are so

inevitably forced into the dark and mysterious atmosphere of the heros

life and thoughts that you cannot evade the singular streams of

consciousness which to bring forth is the authors single aim. Even

move complicated and difficult to read is his second book: Finnegans

Wake, which adds to the day-light of consciousness the confusing

night-dreams of the subconscious, a single stream of incomprehensible

mysteries and visions, floating like broken fragments of the mind in the

vast ocean of the human soul. In order to get a first impression of

Joyces psychological attempts it is better to begin with his early

autobiographical work, in which the often quoted Stream of

Consciousness can already be observed.

 

Early Works

 

INCLUDEPICTURE \d "Portrets\\JoycePortret2.jpg" As an

undergraduate Joyce published essays on literature. His first book,

Chamber Music (1907), consists of 36 highly finished love poems, which

reflect the influence of the Elizabethan lyricists and the English lyric

poets of the 1890s. In his second work, Dubliners (1914), a collection

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