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НазваThomas More \"Utopia\" (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Faculty of Foreign Languages


Thomas More




Open University


5 course








The Second Book








The "dark" Middle Ages were followed by a time known in art and

literature as the Renaissance. The word "renaissance" means "rebirth" in

French and was used to denote a phase in the cultural development of

Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries.


Thomas More, the first English humanist of the Renaissance, was born in

London in 1478. Thomas More wrote in English and in Latin. The

humanists of al1 European countries communicated in the Latin language,

and their best works were written in Latin.


His style is simple, colloquial end has an unaffected ease. The work by

which he is best remembered today is "Utopia" which was written in Latin

in the year 1516. It has now been translated into all European



"Utopia" (which in Greek means "nowhere") is the name of a non-existent

island. This work is divided into two books.


In the first, the author gives a profound and truthful picture of the

people's sufferings and points out the socia1 evils existing, in England

at the time. In the second book more presents his ideal of what the

future society should be like.


“The word "utopia" has become a byword and is used in Modern English to

denote an unattainable ideal, usually in social and political matters.

But the writer H.G. Wells, who wrote an introduction to the latest

edition, said that the use of the word "utopia" was far from More's

essentia1 quality, whose mind abounded in sound, practical ideas. The

book is in reality a very unimaginative work.” (Harry Levin, “The Myth

of the Golden Age in the Renaissance.” 1969.)


Thomas More's "Utopia" was the first literary work in which the ideas of

Communism appeared. It was highly esteemed by all the humanists of

Europe in More's time and again grew very popular with the socialists of

the 19th century. After More, a tendency began in literature to write

fantastic novels on social reforms, and many such works appeared in

various countries.




The historical Thomas More, the author of Utopia, was an extraordinarily

complicated man who tied up all the threads of his life in his heroic

death. The real man is to me much more interesting than the plastic

creation adored by his most fervent admirers. The Utopia is the sort of

complicated book that we should expect from so complicated a man.


It is heavy with irony. Irony is the recognition of the distance between

what we say and what we mean. But then irony was the experience of life

in the Sixteenth Century - reason enough for Shakespeare to make it

perhaps his most important trope while the century was drawing to a

close. Everywhere in church, government, society, and even scholarship

profession and practice stood separated by an abyss.


In Utopia three characters converse and reports of other conversations

enter the story. Thomas More appears as himself. Raphael Hythlodaeus or

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