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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваTwo approches to the scientific management (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Project done by Tsingovatova Elena


Historical Review of the Principals of Management

The traditional model characterised as  administration under "the formal
control of political leadership, based on a strictly hierarchical model
of bureaucracy, staffed by permanent , neutral and anonymous officials,
motivated only by the public interest, serving any governing party
equally and  not contributing to policy but merely administering those
policies decided by the politicians" (Public Management and
Administration and Introduction by Owen E Huges, p.23). 

By the 1920s this model was fully formed and continued with extremely
little change for at least fifty years. "Young" practitioners were  so
assured of their theories and they believed that the improvement of
government and its administration would promote a better life for all. 

After the critique of the theory of the separation between
administration and politics considered as the myth to tolerate that
politicians  and administrators could be separated, the argument took
place between scholars of public administration. 

Nevertheless  the political control and the theoretical basis of the
bureaucracy were thoroughly established and unchanged, there were public
sector adaptations of management theory. The row of imports from the
private sector took place and the most important  is the scientific
management. That was explained by pretending that Public Management is
able to be non-political and hence the operational methods used in the
public sector would be  the same as those used in the private sector. 

But the larger waste is still human resources, like human efforts, which
go on every day through such of our acts as are blundering, ill-directed
or inefficient, and which referred to as a lack of "national

Scientific Management School

The basic assumption  of this school is the philosophy that workers, at
the operational  level, are economically motivated and that they will
put forth their best efforts if they are rewarded financially. The
emphasis is on maximum output with minimum strain, eliminating waste and
efficiency. The work of Frederick Winslow Taylor  dominates the thinking
of this "school".

Biography of F.Taylor

Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)  was a mechanical engineer whose
writings on efficiency and scientific management were widely read.
Taylor devised the system he called scientific management, a form of
industrial engineering that established the organisation of work.  The
main goal of his theory was to increase productivity. And at the same
time he did not favour unions or industrial democracy. That's why his
theory is regarded as authoritarian style of administration. 

Efficiency was the most important theme of Taylor's works. As a steel
works manager in Philadelphia, he was interested in knowing how to get
more work out of workers, who are "naturally lazy and engage in
systematic soldiering." This attitude, he found, was contributed to by
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