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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваTwo approches to the scientific management (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Project done by Tsingovatova Elena




Historical Review of the Principals of Management


The traditional model characterised as administration under "the formal

control of political leadership, based on a strictly hierarchical model

of bureaucracy, staffed by permanent , neutral and anonymous officials,

motivated only by the public interest, serving any governing party

equally and not contributing to policy but merely administering those

policies decided by the politicians" (Public Management and

Administration and Introduction by Owen E Huges, p.23).


By the 1920s this model was fully formed and continued with extremely

little change for at least fifty years. "Young" practitioners were so

assured of their theories and they believed that the improvement of

government and its administration would promote a better life for all.


After the critique of the theory of the separation between

administration and politics considered as the myth to tolerate that

politicians and administrators could be separated, the argument took

place between scholars of public administration.


Nevertheless the political control and the theoretical basis of the

bureaucracy were thoroughly established and unchanged, there were public

sector adaptations of management theory. The row of imports from the

private sector took place and the most important is the scientific

management. That was explained by pretending that Public Management is

able to be non-political and hence the operational methods used in the

public sector would be the same as those used in the private sector.


But the larger waste is still human resources, like human efforts, which

go on every day through such of our acts as are blundering, ill-directed

or inefficient, and which referred to as a lack of "national



Scientific Management School


The basic assumption of this school is the philosophy that workers, at

the operational level, are economically motivated and that they will

put forth their best efforts if they are rewarded financially. The

emphasis is on maximum output with minimum strain, eliminating waste and

efficiency. The work of Frederick Winslow Taylor dominates the thinking

of this "school".


Biography of F.Taylor


Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) was a mechanical engineer whose

writings on efficiency and scientific management were widely read.

Taylor devised the system he called scientific management, a form of

industrial engineering that established the organisation of work. The

main goal of his theory was to increase productivity. And at the same

time he did not favour unions or industrial democracy. That's why his

theory is regarded as authoritarian style of administration.


Efficiency was the most important theme of Taylor's works. As a steel

works manager in Philadelphia, he was interested in knowing how to get

more work out of workers, who are "naturally lazy and engage in

systematic soldiering." This attitude, he found, was contributed to by

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