найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваPubs and clubs (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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If you want to form a correct opinion of the English character, you must

not confine your observations to the metropolis. You must go forth into

the country, you must sojourn in villages and hamlets; you must visit

castles, farm-houses, cottages; you must wander through parks and

gardens, along hedges and green lanes and see the people in all their

conditions, and all their habits and humors.


Washington Irving




паше — 'The Pig and Whistle' or 'The Elephant and Castle' — with a gay

painting depicting the name. There is a good deal of folklore behind the

names which pubs bear. A pub near Ambleside is called 'The Drunken Duck'

for a very strange reason. One day the ducks of this hostelry (which was

also a farm) drank some spirit which had leaked from a barrel. Where

upon they fell into a stupor. The good wife, thinking them dead, plucked

them, and was about to cook them when she observed signs of life — one

of the plucked birds was wandering drunkenly round the yard.


Most pubs, besides beer, sell all kinds of alcohol, from whisky to wine.

Many of them also offer light meals. Normally pubs are divided into at

least two separate bars — the public and the saloon bar, which is more

comfortable and slightly more expensive. 'Bar' also means the counter at

which the drinks are served Beer and cider, a drink made from apples, is

always sold in pint or half-pint glasses. A pint is equivalent to 0.57

litre. Pubs have not 'gone metric' yet.


No alcoholic drinks may be served to young people under eighteen, and no

children under sixteen are allowed inside the bar.


Most pubs favour the 'traditional' image — a roaring log fire, old oak

beams supporting a low ceiling, and brass ornaments on the walls. At

Donaghadee, Northern Ireland, one of the authors of this book had an

opportunity to see a brass plaque on the wall inside 'Grace Neill's

Bar’. The plaque contained the names of dignitaries (for instance,

Jonathan Swift), who stayed in this seaside resort's famous bar. Among

them was the name of Peter the Great, who supposedly had visited the

place in 1698 when he was in Britain studying shipbuilding. Another

legend of Peter I is associated with another Irish town, Portpatrick. It

is said he stayed there in 'The Blair Arms' and the room he occupied is

still called the Emperor's Room. These touching legends are cherished

wholeheartedly both by the pub owners and the inhabitants of the two

corresponding towns. Despite the fact, that Peter the Great might have

never crossed the Irish Sea for a mere pint of bitter. For there was no

large-scale shipbuilding in Ireland that time.


Comfort is essential, for here people do not drop in for a quick drink

and then go. They tend generally to 'make an evening of it' and stand or

sit, glass in hand, talking to friends or strangers, until closing time,

when, with a cry of 'Time, gentlemen, please!' the landlord ceases to

serve further drinks, and the assembled company gradually disperses into

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