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НазваHow to negotiate effectively (реферат)
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РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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HOW TO NEGOTIATE EFFECTIVELY

 

1. What is negotiation

 

Negotiation is an essential part of the every-day business life. It can

take place at any time and in any place. Negotiation is a kind of

meeting, but contrary to the latter it may be held in some unexpected

and uncomfortable place such as the street or on the stairs.

 

There are several definitions of negotiation. It is said to be “the

process for resolving conflict between two or more parties whereby both

or all modify their demands to achieve a mutually acceptable

compromise”. Thus, it is “the process of changing both parties’ views of

their ideal outcome into an attainable outcome”.

 

The need of negotiation arises when we are not fully in control of

events. Negotiations take place to handle mutual differences or conflict

of:

 

interests (wages, hours, work conditions, prices: seller vs buyer)

 

rights (different interpretations of an agreement)

 

The aim of a negotiation is to come to an agreement which is acceptable

to both sides, and to preserve the overall relationships. While specific

issues are to be negotiated, common interest are yet still to be

maintained. Negotiations do not mean “war”. Negotiators can still be

friends and partners.

 

2. The negotiation continuum

 

Overlap

 

The situations of negotiation can be shown diagrammatically in terms of

ideals and limits.

 

Ideal

Limit

 

HIM

 

Bargaining area

 

Limit Ideal YOU

 

The limit may be the limit of negotiator’s authority, such as a minimum

(e.g. price) acceptable. If there is overlap it is possible to settle.

The final position within the bargaining area, where settlement takes

place, depends on the negotiators’ relative strength and skill.

 

No overlap

 

The aim of the negotiator is to achieve a result, i.e. to find a

solution, within the bargaining area. However, it is possible that both

parties set limits which do not provide overlap. In this case the

negotiators have to move their limits, otherwise the negotiation will be

broken down.

 

Ideal

Limit

 

HIM

No deal

 

YOU

 

Limit

Ideal

 

Too much overlap

 

The opposite case is also possible. When one is careless and settles for

less than he could. In this case the limit of the opposite side should

be found and the ideal should be revised.

 

Ideal

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