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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваMusic and ballet (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Белгородское медицинское училище




Реферат по английскому языку.




«Music and ballet».




студентка 24-й группы


Селикова Т.


г. Белгород


2001 г.




It was Mikhail Glinka (1804 — 1857) who laid the foundation for modern

Russian music. After three years of study in Italy, he began to suffer

from the wish to hear music expressing the temperament of his own

people. His two best-known operas, Ivan Susanin and Ruslan and Lyudmila,

were based on Russian folklore and historical legend.


Glinka’s works inspired a group of five younger composers who emerged

as an extraordinary musical phenomenon in the late nineteenth century:

Miliy Balakirev (1836 — 1910), Alexander Borodin (1833 — 1887), Modest

Mussorgsky (1839 — 1881), Caesar Cui (1835 — 1918), and Nicholai

Rimsky-Korsakov (1844 — 1908).




Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840 — 1893) the best-known of all Russian

composers, gave up a position in the civil service at the age of

twenty-three to devote himself entirely to music, much against the

wishes of his father. After completing his studies at St Peterburg

Conservatoire, he set out for Moscow in 1866 to take up a Teaching



His financial circumstances took a turn for the better in 1877 when he

acquired a wealthy patroness, Nadezhda Filaretovna von Meck, who for the

next fourteen years was to support him. By 1878 he had already composed

the music for the ballet Swan Lake and one of his most famous operas ,

Eugene Onegin. These were followed by the opera The Queen of Spades

(1890) and the ballets Sleeping Beauty (1889) and The Nutcracker

(1892). Now internationally famous, he spent much of his time travelling

around abroad to hear his works performed.




Tchaikovsky was followed by his pupil Sergei Taneyev (1856 — 1915), who

in his turn taught Sergei Rachmaninov (1873—1943), the great pianist and

composer, Alexander Scryabin (1872 — 1915) and Rein-gold Gliere (1875 —

1956). Another composer, Alexander Glazunov (1865 — 1936), had an

important influence on the new generation of Russian composers during

his time as a teacher and director of the St Petersburg Conservatoire,

before he left Russia for France in 1928.




Igor Stravinsky was in his middle twenties when he met Sergei Diaghilev,

the celebrated impressario of the Ballets Russes and went with him to

Paris. In his works, particularly in the ballets Firebird and

Petrushka, he was inspired by the Russian folk music. Stravinsky became

a French citizen in 1934,but during the Second World War he moved to the

United States.




Like many other composers of the younger generation, Sergei Prokofiev

(1891 — 1953) and Dmitry Shostakovich (1906—1975) owed a debt to

Glazunov. He persuaded Prokofiev’s father to send him to the

Conservatoire to develop his musical talent, and defended young

Shostakovich’s right to a scholarship there.


In the thirties, along with Prokofiev and others, Shostakovich fell into

disgrace for “ideological deficiencies” and for a number of years almost

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