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НазваA valediction forbidding mourning by John Donne (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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by John Donne


AS virtuous men pass mildly away,


    And whisper to their souls to go,


Whilst some of their sad friends do say,


    "Now his breath goes," and some say, "No."


So let us melt, and make no noise,


    No tear-floods, nor sigh-tempests move ;


'Twere profanation of our joys


    To tell the laity our love.


Moving of th' earth brings harms and fears ;


    Men reckon what it did, and meant ;


But trepidation of the spheres,


    Though greater far, is innocent.


Dull sublunary lovers' love


    —Whose soul is sense—cannot admit


Of absence, 'cause it doth remove


    The thing which elemented it.


But we by a love so much refined,


    That ourselves know not what it is,


Inter-assuredиd of the mind,


    Care less, eyes, lips and hands to miss.


Our two souls therefore, which are one,


    Though I must go, endure not yet


A breach, but an expansion,


    Like gold to aery thinness beat.


If they be two, they are two so


    As stiff twin compasses are two ;


Thy soul, the fix'd foot, makes no show


    To move, but doth, if th' other do.


And though it in the centre sit,


    Yet, when the other far doth roam,


It leans, and hearkens after it,


    And grows erect, as that comes home.


Such wilt thou be to me, who must,


    Like th' other foot, obliquely run ;


Thy firmness makes my circle just,


    And makes me end where I begun.


        At the beginning of "A Valediction Forbidding Mourning," the

poet, John Donne, engages in a didactic lesson to show the parallel

between a positive way to meet death and a positive way to separate from

a lover. When a virtuous man dies, he whispers for his soul to go while

others await his parting. Such a man sets an example for lovers. The

separation of the soul from the body, and the separation of lovers from

each other, is not an ending but the beginning of a new cycle. The poem

ends with the image of a circle, the symbol of perfection, representing

the union of souls in a love relationship. This perfection is attained

by parting at the beginning of the circle and reuniting at the point

where the curves reconnect.


        According to Helen Gardner, the metaphysical poem takes the

reader down a certain path, a fixed line of argumentation. This

valediction, an act of bidding farewell, proceeds in the guise of a

monologue in which a speaker attempts to persuade a lover to remain

faithful during his absence. The monologue is dramatic in the sense that

the stay-behind lover is the implied listener. Donne's monologue is

unique because he uses metaphysical comparisons to show the union of the

lovers during their period of separation.


        Although the poem attempts to persuade the lover as an implied

listener, it also speaks indirectly to the reader who is drawn into the

argument. The speaker's argument is supported by an implied reference to

the authority of Greek philosophers and astronomers. According to

Patricia Pinka, this use of esteemed authority to justify a view about

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