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НазваIntelligence (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Тип документуРеферат
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Intelligence is in government operations, evaluated information
concerning such things as the strength, activities, and probable courses
of action of other nations who are usually, but not necessarily,
opponents. In a world of sovereign nations, information is a prime
element of national power, and intelligence is the vital and often
pivotal foundation for national decisions. 

National intelligence organizations

In a world in revolutionary ferment, the authentic intelligence officer
occupies the centre of great debates over national security policy. At
issue in most of the debates are questions of power, probability, and
time. A prime task of the modem professional intelligence officer,
military or civilian, is to try to answer questions for the policymaker
about power and about behaviour probabilities, within a time scale. For
a chief of state trying to decide a question about nuclear armaments,
for example, an ideal intelligence system would provide precise
knowledge of a potential enemy's power, the probability of that enemy's
behaviour or reaction in given contingencies, and a time schedule for
the most likely sequence of events.

These are basic problems for all intelligence services. Information as
to how these services address their problems is highly uneven. More is
generally known about the U.S. system than any other, a good deal about
that of the old Soviet Union, and comparatively less about other
systems. Intelligence systems follow three general models: the U.S.,
which was followed by former West Germany, Japan, South Korea, and other
nations that came under U.S. influence after World War II; the old
Soviet, which was imitated in large measure by most communist-governed
nations; and the British, on which were patterned the systems of most
nations with true parliamentary governments.

The United Kingdom

British intelligence was organized along modem lines as early as the
days of Queen Elizabeth I, and the long British experience has
influenced the structure of most other systems. Unlike those of the
United States and the old Soviet Union, British intelligence agencies
have preserved through most of their history a high degree of secrecy
concerning their organization and operations. Even so, Britain has
suffered from large number of native spies within the intelligence

The two principal British intelligence agencies are the Secret
Intelligence Service (SIS; also known by its wartime designation, MI-6)
and the Security Service (commonly called MI-5). The labels derive from
the fact that the Secret Intelligence Service was once "section six" of
military intelligence and the Security Service, "section five."


MI-6 is the formally Secret Intelligence Service, British government
agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and appropriate
dissemination of foreign intelligence. MI-6 is responsible for the
conduct of espionage activities outside British territory.

The Intelligence Services Act 1994 defines the role of MI6 as “a) to
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