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НазваIntelligence (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Intelligence is in government operations, evaluated information

concerning such things as the strength, activities, and probable courses

of action of other nations who are usually, but not necessarily,

opponents. In a world of sovereign nations, information is a prime

element of national power, and intelligence is the vital and often

pivotal foundation for national decisions.


National intelligence organizations


In a world in revolutionary ferment, the authentic intelligence officer

occupies the centre of great debates over national security policy. At

issue in most of the debates are questions of power, probability, and

time. A prime task of the modem professional intelligence officer,

military or civilian, is to try to answer questions for the policymaker

about power and about behaviour probabilities, within a time scale. For

a chief of state trying to decide a question about nuclear armaments,

for example, an ideal intelligence system would provide precise

knowledge of a potential enemy's power, the probability of that enemy's

behaviour or reaction in given contingencies, and a time schedule for

the most likely sequence of events.


These are basic problems for all intelligence services. Information as

to how these services address their problems is highly uneven. More is

generally known about the U.S. system than any other, a good deal about

that of the old Soviet Union, and comparatively less about other

systems. Intelligence systems follow three general models: the U.S.,

which was followed by former West Germany, Japan, South Korea, and other

nations that came under U.S. influence after World War II; the old

Soviet, which was imitated in large measure by most communist-governed

nations; and the British, on which were patterned the systems of most

nations with true parliamentary governments.


The United Kingdom


British intelligence was organized along modem lines as early as the

days of Queen Elizabeth I, and the long British experience has

influenced the structure of most other systems. Unlike those of the

United States and the old Soviet Union, British intelligence agencies

have preserved through most of their history a high degree of secrecy

concerning their organization and operations. Even so, Britain has

suffered from large number of native spies within the intelligence



The two principal British intelligence agencies are the Secret

Intelligence Service (SIS; also known by its wartime designation, MI-6)

and the Security Service (commonly called MI-5). The labels derive from

the fact that the Secret Intelligence Service was once "section six" of

military intelligence and the Security Service, "section five."




MI-6 is the formally Secret Intelligence Service, British government

agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and appropriate

dissemination of foreign intelligence. MI-6 is responsible for the

conduct of espionage activities outside British territory.


The Intelligence Services Act 1994 defines the role of MI6 as “a) to

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