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НазваAmerican Federalism in 1990s (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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American Federalism in 1990s.

While it would be an overstatement to suggest that the average American
has a clear concept of meaning of federalism in 1994, there is some
evidence than issues, involving locus of governmental power are
important to many. For example, polling organizations frequently ask
citizens - which level of government most enjoys their trust and
confidence. The results consistently indicate, that people trust their
local governments most and their national government least. The states
drift along in the middle. So, most Americans  view local government the
most favorably. 

	However, as is the case in most areas of our political life, attitudes
change significantly when citizens are faced with specific issues. Even
though Americans  appear to be committed to federalism in the abstract,
they always seem to have lengthy list of problems which they want the
federal government because state and local governments have failed to
resolve them, or a list of services which are perceived as poorly
provided or not provided at all. It is common for individuals and groups
to respond to such perceptions by demanding that the national government
create new standards or mandates  or provide direct or indirect
expenditures of money. Sometimes, they seek both. 

	While it is traditional to expect demands for increased national
government activity from more liberal, so-called «big government»,
elements in American society, conservatives, who see themselves as a
defenders of state’s rights and local self-government also may jump on
the bandwagon and demand national action.  Thus it is quite unsurprising
 that recently liberal elements in American society have sought national
legislation controlling access to firearms, as reflected in
recently-adopted Brady Bill, which requires dealers to run checks on
purchasers. On the other hand, it seems unusual, from a federalism
perspective, that conservative elements have sought national government
action to eliminate or restrict access to abortions or to permit the
introduction of prayers in the public schools. 

	Perhaps the best recent example of such a demand for national action
may be found in public safety area. There is a general perception, that
high levels of criminal activity made the persons and property of the
average citizen in this country unsafe. In general, however, the
definition and control of criminal behavior has historically been a
state and local responsibility. Our national officials sense that there
is a demand for them to do something in response to state and local
failures. The result is anti-crime legislation at the national level
which has been proposed by the President and which is largely supported
by members of Congress. While many of us doubt the effectiveness of the
specific legislation, few people have seriously objected to this
activity as destructive of basic fabric of our federal system. 

	The result is an inconsistent and often confusing approach to solving
governmental problems in a federalist concept.  In terms of practical
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