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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваKharkiv Region (реферат)
Автор
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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The Kharkiv Oblast, one of the territorial social and economic oblast

rank systems of Ukraine – lies in the northeastern part of Ukraine. In

area (31.400 square kilometres or 5.2 per cent of the territory of

Ukraine) it is comparable to such European countries as Belgium and

Albania. There are 27 administrative rayons (districts), 381 rural

councils, 17 towns, 60 urban settlements, 1,718 rural settlements in the

Oblast. The capital is the Kharkiv.

 

After a proclamation of independence of Ukraine the economical and

geographical position of the Oblast has changed – it has become an

adjacent-to-a-border territory. Despite the remoteness of the Oblast

from the centre of the country, its location directly adjacent to the

fuel and power base of Ukraine, industrial Donbas and Naddniprianshchyna

(the region along Dnipro River), increases its economic potential and

makes up for such ‘marginality’ of its location.

 

The Kharkiv Oblast retains a convenient transport and geographical

position at the crossing of international ways "North-South" and

"West-East".

 

HISTORY

 

The Kharkiv Oblast constitutes the main part of a historical, cultural,

and geographical region Slobidska Ukraine that consisted also of the

territories of a number of the today's regions of Ukraine and Russia.

 

Mass settling of the territory by Ukrainian Cossaks (cavalrymen),

peasants, and migrants from Russia began in the seventeenth century. The

name of their settlements – sloboda – gave the name to all the territory

– Slobozhanshchyna.

 

In 1765, Slobozhanshchyna was formed up as an administrative-territorial

unit – Slobodsko-Ukrainian Province with Kharkiv being its capital.

 

The geographical position of the territory promoted a rapid growth of

its intermediary activities in the trade between regions of East and

Central Europe, Prychornomoria (regions near Black Sea), Caucasus, and

the centre of Russia. Kharkiv fairs with their worth millions turnovers

provided priority position of the territory in this region.

 

By the beginning of the twentieth century, under conditions of

democratic transformations in the Russian Empire, the Kharkiv region

became one of the largest economic and cultural centres of Ukraine, a

major transport junction, centre of mechanical engineering, iron

industry, banking, higher education, and science.

 

In 1919-34, Kharkiv was the capital of the Ukraine. During this period

of time it established itself as the largest industrial, cultural, and

scientific centre.

 

Under new conditions of updating economic, social, and cultural life the

Kharkiv Oblast tries to conserve its unique potential, to acquire a new

merit of its regional identity while taking account of both historical

traditions and global trends in the world.

 

NATURE, MINERALS, ENVIRONMENT

 

The Kharkiv Oblast is situated at the border of steppe lands and a

forest-steppe zone. Topography: hilly plain. The climate is a temperate

continental one. Chernozems (black earths) prevail. There are mostly oak

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