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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваTernopil Region (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
Замовити оригінальну роботу
Commerce and crafts were greatly developed. The main objects of commerce
were bread, cattle, honey, wax, fish, and merchant goods. 

According to the point of view of the prominent professor
Ivan-Sviatoslav Koropetsky, two events in Ukrainian history influenced
all its territory and were of great significance: Mongol-Tatar invasion
in the 13th c. and Pereyaslav treaty of 1654 with Moscow. These events
influenced geographic orientation of Ukrainian economy, its separated
lands, i.e. the direction of commercial relations, acceptability of
technological and social progress from some cultural area, which greatly
influenced economic structure and efficiency, other spheres of social
life – policy, religion, law and culture. 

A very important role in the life of Kyivan Rus, due to its favourable
geographic position, was played by the foreign commerce. The areas near
the Dnipro river served as a route for commerce between Scandinavia and
Byzantium. The commerce with the East and the countries of Central and
Western Europe was done mostly through Halychyna. 

Mongol-Tatar invasion greatly influenced the geographic distribution of
commerce. The commercial relations between Pre-Dnipro territory and
Byzantium declined, but instead of them the new commerce appeared, with
eastern countries: Persia, Afghanistan, India. Especially important was
the transference of the economic and political centre, from Kyiv to the
West – to the cities of Halych, Volodymyr and later – to Lviv. The
Dnister River substituted the Dnipro River as the main commercial artery
between Ukrainian lands and the Black Sea. Halychian tradesmen made
commercial operations through the Black Sea ports not only with
Byzantium, but also with different Italian and French cities, and
commerce with Hungary, Moldova, Poland and Germany became more

The rebellion led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky (1648) stopped to some extent
the Ukrainian commerce with the West through Poland and Baltic ports.
But it was renewed in the last third part of the 17th century on the
territory of Western Ukraine, which remained to be under the power of

After the forced union of Rightbank territory of Ukraine and Volyn with
Moscow, the struggle between Polish, Prussian and Russian manufacturers
started for the markets of the above mentioned Ukrainian areas. Due to
protectional (taxation) policy of Moscow, the local demand for the
industrial goods was usually satisfied by the production from Polish
kingdom or Russia. In the middle of the previous century Ukraine, except
Eastern Halychyna, became fully influenced by the Russian economy, being
limited in relation with other countries, first of all with the Western
European countries. 

With the beginning of industrialisation of the European countries in the
second half of the 19th century, 8 steam and 680 water mills, 170
alcohol and beer-boiling plants (in 1910 their number increased to 390)
operated on the present territory of the Ternopil region. Some
slaughterhouses and the enterprises of hide processing, soap, tobacco,
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