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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваTernopil Region (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Commerce and crafts were greatly developed. The main objects of commerce

were bread, cattle, honey, wax, fish, and merchant goods.


According to the point of view of the prominent professor

Ivan-Sviatoslav Koropetsky, two events in Ukrainian history influenced

all its territory and were of great significance: Mongol-Tatar invasion

in the 13th c. and Pereyaslav treaty of 1654 with Moscow. These events

influenced geographic orientation of Ukrainian economy, its separated

lands, i.e. the direction of commercial relations, acceptability of

technological and social progress from some cultural area, which greatly

influenced economic structure and efficiency, other spheres of social

life – policy, religion, law and culture.


A very important role in the life of Kyivan Rus, due to its favourable

geographic position, was played by the foreign commerce. The areas near

the Dnipro river served as a route for commerce between Scandinavia and

Byzantium. The commerce with the East and the countries of Central and

Western Europe was done mostly through Halychyna.


Mongol-Tatar invasion greatly influenced the geographic distribution of

commerce. The commercial relations between Pre-Dnipro territory and

Byzantium declined, but instead of them the new commerce appeared, with

eastern countries: Persia, Afghanistan, India. Especially important was

the transference of the economic and political centre, from Kyiv to the

West – to the cities of Halych, Volodymyr and later – to Lviv. The

Dnister River substituted the Dnipro River as the main commercial artery

between Ukrainian lands and the Black Sea. Halychian tradesmen made

commercial operations through the Black Sea ports not only with

Byzantium, but also with different Italian and French cities, and

commerce with Hungary, Moldova, Poland and Germany became more



The rebellion led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky (1648) stopped to some extent

the Ukrainian commerce with the West through Poland and Baltic ports.

But it was renewed in the last third part of the 17th century on the

territory of Western Ukraine, which remained to be under the power of



After the forced union of Rightbank territory of Ukraine and Volyn with

Moscow, the struggle between Polish, Prussian and Russian manufacturers

started for the markets of the above mentioned Ukrainian areas. Due to

protectional (taxation) policy of Moscow, the local demand for the

industrial goods was usually satisfied by the production from Polish

kingdom or Russia. In the middle of the previous century Ukraine, except

Eastern Halychyna, became fully influenced by the Russian economy, being

limited in relation with other countries, first of all with the Western

European countries.


With the beginning of industrialisation of the European countries in the

second half of the 19th century, 8 steam and 680 water mills, 170

alcohol and beer-boiling plants (in 1910 their number increased to 390)

operated on the present territory of the Ternopil region. Some

slaughterhouses and the enterprises of hide processing, soap, tobacco,

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