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Ibn Seena (Avicenna)


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Abd All?h ibn S?n? (Persian/Arabic: ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ???

?????); (born c. 980 near Bukhara, Khorasan, died 1037 in Hamedan), also

known as Ibn Seena and commonly known in English by his Latinized name

Avicenna (Greek A?????????), was a Persian polymath and the foremost

physician and philosopher of his time. He was also an astronomer,

chemist, geologist, Hafiz, logician, paleontologist, mathematician,

physicist, poet, psychologist, scientist, Sheikh, soldier, statesman,

teacher and Islamic theologian.


Ibn S?n? wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of

which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 of his surviving

treatises concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on

medicine. His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast

philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine,

which is a standard medical text at many Islamic and European

universities. The Canon of Medicine was used as a text-book in the

universities of Montpellier and Louvain as late as 1650. Ibn S?n?

developed a medical system that combined his own personal experience

with that of Islamic medicine, the medical system of the Greek physician

Galen, Aristotelian metaphysics (Avicenna was one of the main

interpreters of Aristotle), and ancient Persian, Mesopotamian and Indian

medicine. He




Ibn S?n? is regarded as a father of early modern medicine, and clinical

pharmacology particularly for his introduction of systematic

experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology, his

discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases, the

introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases,

the introduction of experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine,

clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, efficacy tests, clinical

pharmacology, neuropsychiatry, risk factor analysis, and the idea of a

syndrome, and the importance of dietetics and the influence of climate

and environment on health. He is also considered the father of the

fundamental concept of momentum in physics, and regarded as a pioneer of

aromatherapy for his invention of steam distillation and extraction of

essential oils. He also developed the concept of uniformitarianism and

law of superposition in geology.


George Sarton, an author of the history of science, wrote in the

Introduction to the History of Science:


"One of the most famous exponents of Muslim universalism and an eminent

figure in Islamic learning was Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna

(981-1037). For a thousand years he has retained his original renown as

one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history. His most

important medical works are the Qanun (Canon) and a treatise on Cardiac

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